Platanthera flava

Family:ORCHIDACEAE
Species:Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
Common Name:Southern Rein Orchid; Pale Green Orchid; Southern Gypsy Spike
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:PLFL
Plant Notes:Southern Rein Orchid is a native perennial in the Orchid family. It grows in swamps, seeps, and floodplain forests. It is often found in the wettest sites where little other vegetation grows. Southern Rein Orchid can be found throughout Alabama. It is a perennial from a cluster of thick fleshy roots. Colonies of plants often form from tubers that develop along the roots. Stems are from 8-20 inches in height. There are usually 2 basal leaves and 1-3 reduced leaves on the flowering stalk. Leaves are lanceolate to elliptic and glabrous. Flowers are produced in dense to lax spikes. Flowers are resupinate and green to yellowish in color. Flowers have three sepals and three petals. The lip petal is descending. The fruit is a capsule with many dust-like seed. Tubercled Rein Orchid (Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley var. herbiola (R. Brown) Luer) occurs in north Alabama. It differs from the typical variety by having a more congested spike with bracts that are as long as or longer than the flowers. Southern Rein Orchid is listed as an S2S3 species in Alabama (S2 - Typically 6 to 20 occurrences, few remaining individuals, acres, or miles of stream, or factors demonstrably making it very vulnerable in the state. S3 - Typically 21 to 100 occurrences, limited acreage, or miles of stream in the state) and globally as a G4 species (imperiled globally because of rarity (6 - 20 occurrences, or few remaining acres, or miles of stream) or very vulnerable to extinction throughout its range because of other factors). As with all native orchids, you should never pick or try to transplant them.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native, FACW (NWI), S2S3 (State Rank), G4T4 (Global Rank)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyORCHIDACEAE - Orchid family
Genus Platanthera
Species Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley - Southern Rein Orchid; Pale Green Orchid; Southern Gypsy Spike

Citation

Citation PLATANTHERA FLAVA (Linnaeus) Lindley, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 293. 1835.
Basionym: Orchis flava Linnaeus 1753.
Type: VIRGINIA: Without data, Clayton 639 (lectotype: BM). Lectotypified by Sheviak, in Cafferty & C. E. Jarvis, Taxon 45: 48. 1999.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Coeloglossum viride var. virescens Coeloglossum viride (Linnaeus) Hartman, var. virescens (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Luer, Native Orchids U.S. 172. 1975.Orchis virescens Muhlenberg ex Willdenow 1805. 
Habenaria flava var. herbiola Habenaria flava (Linnaeus) R. Brown ex Sprengel, var. herbiola (R. Brown) Ames & Correll, Bot. Mus. Leafl. 11: 61. 1943.Habenaria herbiola R. Brown 1813. 
Habenaria flava var. virescens Habenaria flava (Linnaeus) Lindley, var. virescens (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Fernald, Rhodora 23: 148. 1921.Orchis virescens Muhlenberg ex Willdenow 1805. 
Habenaria herbiola Habenaria herbiola R. Brown, in Aiton f., Hortus Kew. 5: 193. 1813.  
Habenaria scutellata Habenaria scutellata (Nuttall) F. Morris, Our Wild Orchids 58. 1929, nom. nud.Not cited, presumably Orchis scutellata Nuttall 1835. 
Habenaria virescens Habenaria virescens (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Sprengel, Syst. Veg. 3: 688. 1826.Orchis virescens Muhlenberg ex Willdenow 1805. 
Habenaria flava Habenaria flava (Linnaeus) R. Brown ex Sprengel, Syst. Veg. 3: 691. 1826.Orchis flava Linnaeus 1753. 
Orchis bidentata Orchis bidentata Elliott, Sketch Bot. S. Carolina 2: 488. 1824.  
Orchis flava Orchis flava Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 942. 1753. VIRGINIA: Without data, Clayton 639 (lectotype: BM). Lectotypified by Sheviak, in Cafferty & C. E. Jarvis, Taxon 45: 48. 1999.
Orchis flava var. virescens Orchis flava Linnaeus, var. virescens (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) J. Green, Trans. Soc. Promot. Useful Arts 3: 120. 1814.Orchis virescens Muhlenberg ex Willdenow 1805. 
Orchis herbiola Orchis herbiola (R. Brown) Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 2: 743. 1814.Habenaria herbiola R. Brown 1813. 
Orchis scutellata Orchis scutellata Nuttall, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., ser. 2. 5: 161. 1835.  
Orchis virescens Orchis virescens Muhlenberg ex Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 4: 37. 1805. PENNSYLVANIA
Peristylus virescens Peristylus virescens (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Lindley, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 298. 1835.Orchis virescens Muhlenberg ex Willdenow 1805. 
Perularia flava Perularia flava (Linnaeus) Farwell, Ann. Rep. Comm. Parks & Boulev. Detroit 11: 54. 1900.Orchis flava Linnaeus 1753. 
Perularia scutellata Perularia scutellata (Nuttall) Small, Fl. S.E. U.S., ed. 2. 314, 1375. 1913.Orchis scutallata Nuttall 1834. 
Perularia virescens Perularia virescens (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) A. Gray, Bot. Gaz. 5: 63. 1880.Orchis virescens Muhlenberg ex Willdenow 1805. 
Perularia bidentata Perularia bidentata (Elliott) Small, Fl. S.E. U.S., ed. 2. 314, 1375. 1913.Orchis bidentata Elliott 1824. 
Platanthera flava var. herbiola Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley, var. herbiola (R. Brown) Luer, Native Orchids U.S. 214. 1975.Habenaria herbiola R. Brown 1813. 
Platanthera herbiola Platanthera herbiola (R. Brown) Lindley, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 287. 1835.Habenaria herbiola R. Brown 1813. 
Platanthera flava    
Platanthera scutellata    
Satyrium virescens Satyrium virescens (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Persoon, Syn. Pl. 2: 507. 1806.Orchis virescens Muhlenberg ex Willdenow 1805. 
Tulotis herbiola Tulotis herbiola (R. Brown) Rafinesque, Fl. Tellur. 2: 37. 1837 ("1836").Habenaria herbiola R. Brown 1813. 

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Barbour, Bullock, Butler, Cherokee, Clay, Conecuh, Crenshaw, Dallas, Etowah, Houston, Jackson, Lawrence, Lee, Limestone, Marengo, Marshall, Montgomery, Pike, Shelby, Talladega, Tallapoosa

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AMAL, AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1896 - 2004

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
TROY000042573 Houston 09 Jul 2015 Alvin R. Diamond
26587
TROY
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
TROY000039202 Butler 27 Aug 2013 Wayne K. Webb
s.n.
TROY
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
JSU113578 Limestone 3 Aug 1996 R. D. Whetstone
18321
JSU
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
JSU113580 Talladega 8 Jul 1995 J. M. Ballard
5494
JSU
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
TROY000011348 Houston 30 Jul 1993 John R. MacDonald
6514
TROY
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
TROY000036165 Barbour 22 Jun 2012 Eric W. Minton
46
TROY
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
UWAL0031868 Conecuh 24 Sep 1982 Kral, R.
69686
UWAL
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
TROY000047894 Autauga 07 Sep 2017 Matthew R. Parker
1164
TROY
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
TROY000044182 Houston 21 Jul 2016 Alvin R. Diamond
27559
TROY
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
TROY000029493 Pike 24 Aug 2009 Alvin R. Diamond
20884
TROY
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
TROY000043329 Houston 29 Oct 2015 Alvin R. Diamond
27006
TROY
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
UWAL0039758 Houston 21 Jul 2016 Diamond, Alvin R.
27559
UWAL
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
UWAL0033164 Houston 29 Oct 2015 Diamond, Alvin R.
27006
UWAL
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
JSU113575 Etowah 19 Oct 1994 L. M. Hodge
4022
JSU
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley var. flava
UNA00062935 Pike 08 Aug 2004 Alvin R. Diamond
14591
UNA
Platanthera flava (L.) Lindl.
UWAL0043499 Baldwin 12 Sep 2002 Larsen, H.S.
1118
UWAL
Platanthera flava (L.) Lindl.
AUA_ACC052144 Houston 3 OCT 1993 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
8862
AUA
PLATANTHERA FLAVA (L.) LINDL.
JSU113573 Baldwin 8 Oct 2000 D. D. Spaulding
10871
JSU
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
TROY000049016 Montgomery 26 Jul 2019 Alvin R. Diamond
29027
TROY
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
AMAL00001313 Cherokee 30 Jul 1995 D. D. Spaulding
8726
AMAL
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
AMAL00001314 Jackson 8 Jul 2000 S. J. Threlkeld
1300
AMAL
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
JSU113576 Houston 30 Jul 1993 John R MacDonald
6514
JSU
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley var. flava
UWAL0015064 Bullock 18 Jul 2012 Dykes, Bailee
1046
UWAL
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
JSU113579 Limestone 29 Jun 1996 J. M. Ballard
5950
JSU
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley var. flava
AUA_ACC072187 Marengo 20 JUL 2012 ENGLAND, J. KEVIN
3755
AUA
PLATANTHERA FLAVA (L.) LINDL.
TROY000011366 Pike 15 Jul 2001 Alvin R. Diamond
12557
TROY
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
JSU113577 Lawrence 21 Jul 1996 R. D. Whetstone
18261
JSU
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
TROY000011370 Pike 08 Aug 2004 Alvin R. Diamond
14591
TROY
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
AUA_ACC051813 Crenshaw 12 JUL 1991 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
7584
AUA
PLATANTHERA FLAVA (L.) LINDL.
UWAL0019809 Houston 09 Jul 2015 Diamond, Alvin R.
26587
UWAL
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
UWAL0011115 Dallas 17 Jul 2012 Webb, Wayne
s.n.
UWAL
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
AUA_ACC051255 Clay 25 AUG 1990 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
7082
AUA
PLATANTHERA FLAVA (L.) LINDL.
TROY000038691 Marengo 20 Jul 2012 J. Kevin England
3755
TROY
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
JSU113574 Etowah 17 Jul 1994 L. M. Hodge
2873
JSU
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
AMAL00009004 Pike 8 Aug 2004 A. R. Diamond
14591
AMAL
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
AUA_ACC051052 Pike 29 SEP 1990 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
7150
AUA
PLATANTHERA FLAVA (L.) LINDL.
JSU113572 Baldwin 8 Oct 2000 D. D. Spaulding
10872
JSU
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley var. flava
AUA_ACC063900 Pike 8 AUG 2004 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
14591
AUA
PLATANTHERA FLAVA (L.) LINDL.
UWAL0039505 Marshall 11 Jul 2017 Webb, David H.
8474
UWAL
Platanthera flava (L.) Lindl. var. flava
SAMF0000738 Shelby 06 Oct 2011 Davenport, L. J.
4930
SAMF
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
AUA_ACC051717 Conecuh 12 JUL 1991 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
7575
AUA
PLATANTHERA FLAVA (L.) LINDL.
TROY000038091 Bullock 18 Jul 2012 Bailee Dykes
1046
TROY
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
UWAL0017918 Pike 30 Jul 1972 Kral, R.
47957
UWAL
Platanthera flava (L.) Lindl. var. flava
TROY000035221 Dallas 17 Jul 2012 Wayne K. Webb
s.n.
TROY
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
AUA_ACC001933 Lee 10 AUG 1957 PROF. MOORE
AUA
PLATANTHERA FLAVA (L.) LINDL.
UWAL0010535 Marengo 20 Jul 2012 England, J. Kevin
3755
UWAL
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
AUA_ACC026714 Tallapoosa 5 AUG 1974 HUTTO, T. A.
445
AUA
PLATANTHERA FLAVA (L.) LINDL.
UNA00008581 Lee 09 May 1896 L. M. Underwood
s.n.
UNA
Habenaria flava (L.) R. Br.
UWAL0015965 Butler 27 Aug 2013 Webb, Wayne K.
s.n.
UWAL
Platanthera flava (Linnaeus) Lindley
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