Viola canadensis

Family:VIOLACEAE
Species:Viola canadensis Linnaeus
Common Name:Canadian Violet; Canadian White Violet; Tall White Violet
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:VICA4
Plant Notes:Canadian Violet is a native herbaceous perennial in the Violet family (Wiolaceae). It is native to central and northern Alabama. Canadian Violet occurs in hardwood forests, in rocky woods, and in ravines. It is an herbaceous perennial from a branching fleshy rhizome. It forms small clones from the rhizomes. Stems are erect, green in color, and pubescent or glabrous. Leaves are basal and cauline. The leaves are alternate, petiolate, ovate to reniform in outline, cordate, with crenulate or serrate margins. The surface of the blade is glabrous or pubescent. The leaf is subtended by laciniate stipules. Flowers are solitary from the axils of the leaves. Each flower has 5 white petals. The petals often have a yellowish blotch towards the base and the lower 3 often have purple veins. The petals are often light pinkish or purplish tinged on the outer surface. The fruit is a capsule. Canadian Violet is listed as an S2 species in Alabama (typically 6 to 20 occurrences, few remaining individuals, or factors demonstrably making it very vulnerable in the state) and globally as a G5 species (demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery). Canadian Violet is available from some native plant nurseries. It can be used as a ground cover or naturalize in areas of deep shade.—A. Diamond.
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native, S2 (State Rank), G5T5 (Global Rank)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyVIOLACEAE - Violet family
Genus Viola
Species Viola canadensis Linnaeus - Canadian Violet; Canadian White Violet; Tall White Violet

Citation

Citation Viola canadensis L., Sp. Pl. 2: 936. 1753.
Basionym: **
Type: **

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

No synonyms exist for this species.

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Butler, Calhoun, Chambers, DeKalb, Etowah, Jackson, Lowndes, Madison, Tuscaloosa

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: ALNHS, AUA, JSU, TROY, UNA, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1905 - 2020

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
UWAL0004421 Tuscaloosa 19 Mar 2008 Keener, Brian R.
4066
UWAL
Viola canadensis L.
UNA00011283 Tuscaloosa 5 Dec 1905 Harper, Roland M.
20
UNA
Viola canadensis L.
UWAL0053150 Jackson 17 Apr 2021 Keener, Brian R.
12169
UWAL
Viola canadensis L.
JSU137336 DeKalb 26 Apr 1972 Whetstone, R. David
s.n.
JSU
Viola canadensis Linnaeus
UNA00011273 Tuscaloosa 01 Apr 1965 Rubenstein, Norton
72
UNA
Viola canadensis L.
AUA_ACC_53471 Jackson 11 Apr 1991 Gunn, Scott C.
1944
AUA
Viola Canadensis L.
JSU137340 Tuscaloosa 02 Apr 1976 Whetstone, R. David
8057
JSU
Viola canadensis Linnaeus
JSU137337 Jackson 04 May 1994 Spaulding, Daniel D.
6044
JSU
Viola canadensis Linnaeus
UNA00011278 DeKalb 28 Apr 1979 Davenport, Lawrence J.
1062
UNA
Viola canadensis L.
UNA00011284 Tuscaloosa 14 Mar 1962 Ingram, Dianne
s.n.
UNA
Viola canadensis L. var. canadensis
JSU137333 Chambers 27 Apr 1954 Edge, J.T.
s.n.
JSU
Viola canadensis Linnaeus
UNA00011273 Tuscaloosa 1 Apr 1965 Rubenstein, Norton
72
UNA
Viola canadensis L.
UNA00065856 DeKalb 27 Apr 1979 Kral, Robert
63416
UNA
Viola canadensis L.
TROY000031648 Lowndes 20 May 2010 Diamond, Alvin R.
21348
TROY
Viola canadensis Linnaeus
UNA00011283 Tuscaloosa 05 Dec 1905 Harper, Roland M.
20
UNA
Viola canadensis L.
JSU137335 DeKalb 01 Apr 1976 Whetstone, R. David
7945
JSU
Viola canadensis Linnaeus
JSU137331 Calhoun 30 Mar 1953 Smith, Charles Ross
s.n.
JSU
Viola canadensis Linnaeus
JSU137339 Jackson 28 Mar 1976 Atkinson, Tim A.
961
JSU
Viola canadensis Linnaeus
TROY000037395 Butler 17 Mar 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
23830
TROY
Viola canadensis Linnaeus
JSU137332 Chambers 27 Apr 1954 Edge, J.T.
s.n.
JSU
Viola canadensis Linnaeus
UWAL0002099 Lowndes 20 May 2010 Diamond, Alvin R.
21348
UWAL
Viola canadensis L.
TROY000044830 Autauga 02 Mar 2017 Parker, Matthew R.
367
TROY
Viola canadensis Linnaeus
JSU137330 Calhoun 20 Apr 1954 Poore, Gerald A.
s.n.
JSU
Viola canadensis Linnaeus
UNA00011284 Tuscaloosa 14 Mar 1962 Ingram, Dianne
s.n.
UNA
Viola canadensis L. var. canadensis
UWAL0004419 Butler 19 Mar 2009 Diamond, Alvin R.
20530
UWAL
Viola canadensis L.
TROY000028647 Tuscaloosa 19 Mar 2008 Keener, Brian R.
4066
TROY
Viola canadensis Linnaeus
TROY000024486 Etowah 08 Apr 1995 Hodge, Lesley M.
4128
TROY
Viola canadensis Linnaeus var. canadensis
UNA00011268 Tuscaloosa 09 May 1969 Thomas, Joab L.
2051
UNA
Viola canadensis L.
UWAL0057157 Jackson 07 May 2020 Keener, Brian R.
11778
UWAL
Viola canadensis L.
JSU137338 Jackson 28 Mar 1975 Whetstone, R. David
7643
JSU
Viola canadensis Linnaeus
JSU137334 DeKalb 01 Apr 1976 Atkinson, Tim A.
987
JSU
Viola canadensis Linnaeus
UWAL0004420 Tuscaloosa 05 Apr 2006 Skinner, Angie
62
UWAL
Viola canadensis L.
ALNHS00006030 Jackson 23 May 2018 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#3999
ALNHS
Viola canadensis L.
ALNHS00006456 Madison 01 May 2019 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#4530
ALNHS
Viola canadensis L.
TROY000024085 Butler 19 Mar 2009 Diamond, Alvin R.
20530
TROY
Viola canadensis Linnaeus
JSU137341 Tuscaloosa 02 Apr 1976 Atkinson, Tim A.
1145
JSU
Viola canadensis Linnaeus
UWAL0046030 Autauga 02 Mar 2017 Parker, Matthew R.
367
UWAL
Viola canadensis Linnaeus
UNA00011279 DeKalb 11 Apr 1964 Brooks, Carol J.
16
UNA
Viola canadensis L.
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