Zephyranthes tubispatha

Family:AMARYLLIDACEAE
Species:Zephyranthes tubispatha (L'Hér.) Herb.
Common Name:Rio Grande Copper Lily
Habitat:Lawns, roadsides, fields, other open areas.
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:**
Plant Notes:

Rio Grande Copperlily is a summer flowering herbaceous perennial from a bulb. It is found in scattered areas, primarily in south Alabama. It occurs in lawns, in cemeteries, and on roadsides. Bulbs have a brown, papery outer covering and are ovoid or globose in shape. They are about the size of the end of your thumb. The leaves emerge in the autumn and remain green throughout the winter months. In early spring, the foliage dies down and the bulb remains dormant until heavy rains occur in the summer months. Leaves are linear in outline, entire, erect, and glabrous. Flowers are solitary on a hollow scape. Flower shoots emerge almost overnight. Each flower is funnel-form with 6 tepals. The tepals are orangish-yellow with a reddish brown basal area. The flowers are held erect or slightly inclined, and last for only a few days. The fruit is a three-angled capsule containing many thin, wafer-like, black, seed. The plants will continue to flower all summer after periods of drought followed by heavy rains. --A. Diamond

Taxonomic Notes:

Rio Grande Copperlily was first reported from Alabama in 1998 by Diamond et al. (1998) but questions remain as to the nativity of this species in North America. In North America, it is found in Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. It is also found in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay in South America where it is presumed to be native. However, there are a small handful of other species with this unusual bicentric distribution between North and South America. Harold Hume, a botanist and horticulturalist at the University of Florida, suggested that Spanish missionaries introduced this species to North America. Many of the known sites for this plant are around old Spanish missions or Spanish colonial cities. Walter S. Flory, professor of botany at Wake Forest University and an expert on the Amaryllis family, pointed out that the Spanish missions in Texas were founded by Catholics from Mexico. Rio Grande Copperlily is not known from Mexico or any other region of Central America or northern South America. Regardless of its origins, Rio Grande Copperlily is often associated with older settlements in Alabama.--A. Diamond & B.R. Keener

Status:Not Native
References:
  • Diamond, A.R., C.P. Chapman, & J. Brummett. 1998. Habranthus tubispathus (Liliaceae) new to the flora of Alabama. Sida 18: 353-355.
  • Holmes, W.C. & C.J. Wells. 1980. The Distribution of Habranthus tubispathus (L'Her.) Traub in South America and North America - Texas and Louisiana. Sida 8: 328-333.
  • Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

    ** Not applicable or data not available.

    Classification

    FamilyAMARYLLIDACEAE - Amaryllis family
    Genus Zephyranthes
    Species Zephyranthes tubispatha (L'Hér.) Herb. - Rio Grande Copper Lily

    Citation

    Citation Zephyranthes tubispatha (L'Héritier) Herbert, Appendix 36. 1821.
    Basionym: Amaryllis tubispatha L'Hér. 1788.
    Type: ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires: Without data, Commerson s.n. (lectotype: P). Lectotypified by Ravenna, Pl. Life 26: 101. 1970.

    ** Not applicable or data not available.

    Synonyms

    SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
    Amaryllis andersonii Amaryllis andersonii (Herbert ex Lindley) Grisebach, Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 24: 320. 1879.Habranthus andersonii Herbert ex Lindley 1830. 
    Amaryllis tubispatha Amaryllis tubispatha L'Héritier de Brutelle, Sert. Angl. 9. 1789 ("1788"). ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires: Without data, Commerson s.n. (lectotype: P). Lectotypified by Ravenna, Pl. Life 26: 101. 1970.
    Atamosco texana Atamosco texana (Herbert) Greene, Pittonia 3: 187. 1897.Zephyranthes texana Herbert 1836. 
    Habranthus andersonii Habranthus andersonii Herbert ex Lindley, Edwards's Bot. Reg. 16: t. 1345. 1830. URUGUAY: Montevideo, 1767, Commerson s.n. (holotype: BM).
    Habranthus andersonii var. texanus Habranthus andersonii Herbert ex Lindley, var. texanus (Herbert) Herbert, Bot. Mag. 64: t. 3596. 1837.Zephyranthes texana Herbert 1836.  
    Habranthus andersonianus Habranthus andersonianus Herbert, Amaryllidaceae 167. 1837, nom. illegit.Habranthus andersonii Herbert ex Lindley 1830. 
    Habranthus andersonianus var. texanus Habranthus andersonianus Herbert, var. texanus (Herbert) Herbert, Amaryllidaceae 168. 1837.Zephyranthes texana Herbert 1836. 
    Hippeastrum tubispathum Hippeastrum tubispathum (L'Héritier de Brutelle) Baker, J. Bot. 16: 82. 1878.Amaryllis tubispatha L'Héritier de Brutelle 1789. 
    Zephyranthes andersonii Zephyranthes andersonii (Herbert ex Lindley) G. Nicholson, Ill. Dict. Gard. 2: 107. 1885; (Herbert ex Lindley) Baker, Handb. Amaryll. 37. 1888.Habranthus andersonii Herbert ex Lindley 1830. 
    Zephyranthes texana Zephyranthes texana Herbert, Bot. Mag. 63: t. 3482. 1836. TEXAS
    Zephyranthes andersoniana Zephyranthes andersoniana Bentham, in Bentham & Hooker f., Gen. Pl. 3: 724. 1883, nom. illegit.Habranthus andersonianus Herbert 1837, nom. illegit.; Habranthus andersonii Herbert ex Lindley 1830 
    Zephyranthes commersoniana Zephyranthes commersoniana Herbert, Amaryllidaceae 174, t. 29(3). 1837. URUGUAY: Montevideo, s.d., Commerson s.n. (holotype: BM).
    Habranthus texanus    
    Habranthus tubispathus Habranthus tubispathus (L'Héritier) Traub, Pl. Life (Stanford) 7: 42. 1951.Amaryllis tubispatha L'Héritier de Brutelle 1789. 

    Specimens and Distribution

    This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

    Counties included on distribution map: Bullock, Butler, Dallas, Geneva, Houston, Lawrence, Lee, Pike

    Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

    Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: ALNHS, AMAL, AUA, TROY, UNA, UWAL

    Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

    Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
    Collection No.
    Herbarium &
    Herbarium Name Used
    Image
    AMAL00019688 Dallas 26 Aug 2010 Barger, T. Wayne
    195
    AMAL
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'Hér.) Traub
    UNA00060305 Dallas 24 Jul 2003 Diamond, Alvin R.
    14040
    UNA
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'H?r.) Traub
    TROY000011154 Pike 16 Jun 2000 Diamond, Alvin R.
    11720
    TROY
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'Héritier) Traub
    ALNHS00006521 Lee 16 Jul 2019 Barger, T. Wayne
    SP#4684
    ALNHS
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'Her.) Traub
    AUA000027387 Bullock 12 Jul 1996 Diamond, Alvin R.
    10413
    AUA
    Habranthus Tubispathus (L'Her.) Traub.
    TROY000011152 Dallas 24 Jul 2003 Diamond, Alvin R.
    14040
    TROY
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'Héritier) Traub
    AUA000028188 Dallas 26 Jul 2011 Barger, T. Wayne
    SP330
    AUA
    Habranthus Tubispathus (L'Her.) Traub.
    AUA000027391 Pike 17 Jul 1995 Diamond, Alvin R.
    9691
    AUA
    Habranthus Tubispathus (L'Her.) Traub.
    UWAL0019033 Geneva 19 Aug 1998 Kral, Robert
    87663
    UWAL
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'Her.) Traub
    TROY000011153 Geneva 31 Jul 2001 Diamond, Alvin R.
    12579
    TROY
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'Héritier) Traub
    AMAL00000022 Pike 02 Jun 2002 Diamond, Alvin R.
    13243
    AMAL
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'Her.) Traub.
    AUA000027392 Pike 15 Jul 1988 Diamond, Alvin R.
    5210
    AUA
    Habranthus Tubispathus (L'Her.) Traub.
    TROY000011156 Pike 31 Aug 1999 Diamond, Alvin R.
    11600
    TROY
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'Héritier) Traub
    UWAL0030254 Lawrence 29 Jul 2015 England, J. Kevin
    5546
    UWAL
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'Heritier) Traub
    UWAL0015984 Bullock 13 Jun 2012 Dykes, Bailee
    868
    UWAL
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'Her.) Traub.
    TROY000042574 Houston 09 Jul 2015 Diamond, Alvin R.
    26590
    TROY
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'Héritier) Traub
    AUA000027389 Pike 3 Oct 1997 Diamond, Alvin R.
    11131
    AUA
    Habranthus Tubispathus (L'Her.) Traub.
    ALNHS00004263 Lee 08 Jul 2016 Taylor, Chris T.
    SP#2534
    ALNHS
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'Hér.) Traub
    AUA000027390 Pike 12 Jul 1996 Diamond, Alvin R.
    10416
    AUA
    Habranthus Tubispathus (L'Her.) Traub.
    TROY000011155 Pike 16 Jun 2000 Diamond, Alvin R.
    11719
    TROY
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'Héritier) Traub
    TROY000038160 Bullock 13 Jun 2012 Dykes, Bailee
    868
    TROY
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'Héritier) Traub
    TROY000026025 Butler 29 Jul 2008 Diamond, Alvin R.
    19655
    TROY
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'Héritier) Traub
    ALNHS00000583 Dallas 26 Jul 2011 Barger, T. Wayne
    SP#330
    ALNHS
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'Her.) Traub
    UWAL0011992 Dallas 03 Sep 2012 Keener, Brian R.
    7515
    UWAL
    Habranthus tubispathus (L’Héritier) Traub
    AMAL00007697 Dallas 24 Jul 2003 Diamond, Alvin R.
    14040
    AMAL
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'Her.) Traub.
    UNA00059018 Pike 02 Jun 2002 Diamond, Alvin R.
    13243
    UNA
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'H?r.) Traub
    ALNHS00000964 Dallas 26 Jul 2011 Barger, T. Wayne
    SP#330
    ALNHS
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'Her.) Traub
    AUA000027388 Dallas 24 Jul 2003 Diamond, Alvin R.
    14040
    AUA
    Habranthus Tubispathus (L'Her.) Traub.
    UWAL0019812 Houston 09 Jul 2015 Diamond, Alvin R.
    26590
    UWAL
    Habranthus tubispathus (L'Heritier) Traub
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