Helianthus annuus

Family:ASTERACEAE
Species:Helianthus annuus Linnaeus
Common Name:Common Sunflower
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:HEAN3
Plant Notes:Common Sunflower is an introduced herbaceous annual in the Sunflower family (Asteraceae). It is thought to have been native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It has been widely cultivated for thousands of years for its seed. Common Sunflower has been collected throughout Alabama. It occurs on roadsides, around the edges of fields, along railroads, and in waste areas. It is an annual with a tap root. Stems are erect, from 2-10 feet in height, pubescent, and are usually unbranched in cultivated plants. Leaves are alternate, petiolate, ovate to triangular in outline, and pubescent on both surfaces. The margins are entire or toothed. Flowers are produced in heads. There is usually a single terminal head. The phyllaries (bracts subtending the head) are ovate to ovate-lanceolate in outline, pubescent, with ciliate margins and long acuminate apices. The heads have 17-30 yellow, red, or bi-colored ray flowers and 150+ reddish-yellow disc flowers. The fruit is an achene. Common Sunflower is grown commercially for its seed which are used as bird seed, human food, and for oil. It is the only native North American species that is a major crop plant. Common Sunflower is a popular annual, and many varieties are available as seed. Seed should be planted after danger of frost has passed. Common Sunflower prefers a well-draining soil that is rich in organic matter and full sun. Large plants may have to be staked to prevent them from falling over.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Not Native, FAC- (NWI)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyASTERACEAE - Aster family
Genus Helianthus
Species Helianthus annuus Linnaeus - Common Sunflower

Citation

Citation HELIANTHUS ANNUUS Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 904. 1753.
Basionym: **
Type: Without data (lectotype: Tabernaemontanus, Eicones Pl. 793, "Corona solis I". 1590). Lectotypified by C. Jeffrey, Bot. Mag. 182: 33. 1978.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Helianthus annuus var. passiflora Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. passiflora Cockerell, Gard. Chron., ser. 3. 64: 186. 1918.  
Helianthus annuus subsp. jaegeri Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, subsp. jaegeri (Heiser) Heiser, Contr. Dudley Herb. 4: 317. 1955.Helianthus jaegeri Heiser 1948. 
Helianthus annuus subsp. lenticularis Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, subsp. lenticularis (Douglas ex Lindley) Cockerell, Science, ser. 2. 40: 284. 1914; Amer. Naturalist 49: 611. 1915.Helianthus lenticularis Douglas ex Lindley 1829. 
Helianthus annuus subsp. texanus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, subsp. texanus Heiser, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 51: 299. 1954. TEXAS: Uvalde Co.: Frio River W of Knippa, 17 Jul 1949, Heiser 3062 (holotype: IND).
Helianthus annuus var. apicalis Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. apicalis Cockerell, Gard. Chron., ser. 3. 64: 186. 1918.  
Helianthus annuus var. aridus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. aridus (Rydberg) Cockerell, Amer. Naturalist 49: 611. 1915.Helianthus aridus Rydberg 1905. 
Helianthus annuus var. basalis Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. basalis Cockerell, Gard. Chron., ser. 3. 64: 186. 1918.  
Helianthus annuus var. chloranthus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. chloranthus Alefeld, Landw. Fl. 172. 1866.  
Helianthus annuus var. chrysanthemoides Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. chrysanthemoides Cockerell, Amer. Naturalist 49: 617. 1915. COLORADO
Helianthus annuus var. convolutus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. convolutus Cockerell, Gard. Chron., ser. 3. 64: 186. 1918.  
Helianthus annuus var. coronatus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. coronatus Cockerell, Science, ser. 2. 32: 384. 1910. COLORADO: Boulder Co.: Near Boulder,
Helianthus annuus var. dilutus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. dilutus Cockerell, Gard. Chron., ser. 3. 64: 186. 1918.  
Helianthus annuus var. flavobasis Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. flavobasis Cockerell, Gard. Chron., ser. 3. 64: 186. 1918.  
Helianthus annuus var. haageanus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. haageanus Alefeld, Landw. Fl. 172. 1866.  
Helianthus annuus var. indicus Helianthus indicus Linnaeus 1753.  
Helianthus annuus var. latibasis Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. latibasis Cockerell, Gard. Chron., ser. 3. 64: 186. 1918.  
Helianthus annuus var. lenticularis Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. lenticularis (Douglas ex Lindley) Steyermark, Rhodora 62: 132. 1960.Helianthus lenticularis Douglas ex Lindley 1829. 
Helianthus annuus var. macrocarpus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. macrocarpus (de Candolle) Cockerell, Science, ser. 2. 40: 409. 1914.Helianthus macrocarpus de Candolle 1840. 
Helianthus annuus var. macrophyllus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. macrophyllus Alefeld, Landw. Fl. 172. 1866.  
Helianthus annuus var. niger Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. niger Cockerell, Science, ser. 2. 40: 708. 1914.  
Helianthus annuus var. pallescens    
Helianthus annuus var. plenus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. plenus Alefeld, Landw. Fl. 172. 1866.  
Helianthus annuus var. praecox Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. praecox Alefeld, Landw. Fl. 172. 1866.  
Helianthus annuus var. primulinus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. primulinus Cockerell, Science, ser. 2. 38: 312. 1913.  
Helianthus annuus var. pumilus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. pumilus de Candolle, Prodr. 5: 585. 1836.  
Helianthus annuus var. reversus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. reversus Cockerell, Gard. Chron., ser. 3. 64: 186. 1918.  
Helianthus annuus var. revolutus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. revolutus Cockerell, Gard. Chron., ser. 3. 64: 186. 1918.  
Helianthus annuus var. ruberrimus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. ruberrimus Cockerell, Science, ser. 2. 40: 708. 1914.  
Helianthus annuus var. selene Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. selene Cockerell, Science, ser. 2. 40: 284. 1914.  
Helianthus annuus var. semivinosus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. semivinosus Cockerell, Gard. Chron., ser. 3. 64: 186. 1918.  
Helianthus annuus var. simplex Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. simplex Alefeld, Landw. Fl. 172. 1866.  
Helianthus annuus var. striatiflorus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. striatiflorus Alefeld, Landw. Fl. 172. 1866.  
Helianthus annuus var. sulfureus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. sulfureus Alefeld, Landw. Fl. 172. 1866.  
Helianthus annuus var. texanus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. texanus (Heiser) Shinners, Sida 1: 377. 1964.Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, subsp. texanus Heiser 1954. 
Helianthus annuus var. tortuosus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. tortuosus Cockerell, Science, ser. 2. 38: 313. 1913.  
Helianthus annuus var. trizonatus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. trizonatus Cockerell, Gard. Chron., ser. 3. 64: 186. 1918.  
Helianthus annuus var. vinosissimus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. vinosissimus Cockerell, Science, ser. 2. 40: 709. 1914.  
Helianthus annuus var. vinosus Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. vinosus Cockerell, Science, ser. 2. 38: 313. 1913.  
Helianthus annuus var. vulgaris Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, var. vulgaris Alefeld, Landw. Fl. 172. 1866.  
Helianthus aridus Helianthus aridus Rydberg, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 32: 127. 1905. MONTANA: Cascade Co.: Great Falls, 1885, Anderson s.n. (holotype: NY?).
Helianthus cirrhoides Helianthus cirrhoides Lehmann, Hamburger Garten-Blumenzeitung 8: 458. 1852.  
Helianthus colossus Helianthus colossus Kunze, in Otto & A. Dietrich, Allg. Gartenzeitung 7: 43. 1839.  
Helianthus erythrocarpus Helianthus erythrocarpus Bartling, Linnaea 14(Litt. Ber.): 125. 1840.  
Helianthus grandiflorus Helianthus grandiflorus Wenderoth, Index Sem. Hort. Acad. Marburg. 1835; Linnaea 11(Litt.): 92. 1837, non Jussieu ex Persoon 1807.  
Helianthus indicus Helianthus indicus Linnaeus, Mant. Pl. 117. 1767. Cult. in Egypt, without data (lectotype: Tabernaemontanus, New Vollk. Kraeuterb. 1147. 1664). Lectotypified by Reveal, in C. E. Jarvis & Turland, Taxon 47: 362. 1998.
Helianthus jaegeri Helianthus jaegeri Heiser, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 75: 513. 1948. CALIFORNIA: San Bernardino Co.: Near Soda on Soda Dry Lake, 25 Sep 1946, Jaeger s.n. (holotype: POM).
Helianthus lenticularis Helianthus lenticularis Douglas ex Lindley, Edward's Bot. Reg. 15: pl. 1265. 1829.  
Helianthus lenticularis var. primulinus Helianthus lenticularis Douglas ex Lindley, var. primulinus Cockerell, Science, ser. 2. 40: 284. 1914.  
Helianthus lindheimerianus Helianthus lindheimerianus Scheele, Linnaea 22: 159. 1849. TEXAS
Helianthus macrocarpus Helianthus macrocarpus de Candolle, Mém. Soc. Phys. Nat. Gèneve 7: not. 8. 1840.  
Helianthus ovatus Helianthus ovatus Lehmann, Index Sem. Hort. Hamburt 16. 1828.  
Helianthus platycephalus Helianthus platycephalus Cassini, in Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. 20: 352. 1821, nom. illegit.Helianthus annuus Linnaeus 1753. 
Helianthus tubaeformis Helianthus tubaeformis Nuttall, Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 2: 177. 1818, non Ortega 1800.  

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Blount, Bullock, Butler, Calhoun, Chilton, Conecuh, Covington, Jackson, Jefferson, Lauderdale, Lee, Madison, Marengo, Marshall, Mobile, Morgan, Pike, Randolph, Tuscaloosa

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AMAL, AUA, JSU, TROY, UNA, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
TROY000015741 Chilton 27 Jul 2005 Alvin R. Diamond
15554
TROY
Helianthus annuus Linnaeus
UNA00047010 Tuscaloosa 26 Oct 1980 B. Latham
66
UNA
Helianthus annuus L.
AMAL00003050 Calhoun 19 Jun 1995 Daniel D. Spaulding
6808
AMAL
Helianthus annuus L.
JSU139757 Marshall 13 Jul 1996 D. D. Spaulding
9045
JSU
Helianthus annuus Linnaeus
AMAL00010233 Randolph 28 Jul 1988 C. F. Nixon
4095
AMAL
Helianthus annuus L.
UWAL0019494 Lauderdale 09 Jul 2015 England, J. Kevin
5532
UWAL
Helianthus annuus Linnaeus
JSU114180 Jefferson 23 Sep 1984 M. G. Bussey
988
JSU
Helianthus annuus Linnaeus
AUA000004460 Conecuh 28 JUN 1985 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
1015
AUA
HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.
JSU114177 Jackson 27 Jun 1998 K. R. Brodeur
864
JSU
Helianthus annuus Linnaeus
UWAL0015761 Mobile 25 Jun 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24281
UWAL
Helianthus annuus Linnaeus
UNA00055604 Blount 16 Jun 1998 Brian R. Keener
1038
UNA
Helianthus annuus L.
AUA000004459 Butler 8 JUL 1988 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
5199
AUA
HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.
TROY000002245 Covington 11 May 1997 Elizabeth Trotter
s.n.
TROY
Helianthus annuus Linnaeus
JSU114181 Randolph 28 Jul 1988 C. F. Nixon
4095
JSU
Helianthus annuus Linnaeus
USAM000002364 Mobile 15 Jul 1969 Michel G. Lelong
5166
USAM
Helianthus annuus Linnaeus
AUA000004466 Pike 18 DEC 1994 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
9473
AUA
HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.
AUA000004465 Morgan 3 AUG 1969 ATKESON, THOMAS D.
225
AUA
HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.
UWAL0037451 Bullock 17 May 2016 Soehren, Eric C.
0287
UWAL
Helianthus annuus L.
AUA000004463 Lee 15 AUG 1969 SIMONDS, E. P.
139
AUA
HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.
JSU114176 Jackson 27 Jun 1998 K. R. Brodeur
864
JSU
Helianthus annuus Linnaeus
AUA000004462 Lee 21 NOV 1971 LANDERS, SUSAN
190
AUA
HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.
UNA00050328 Randolph 28 Jul 1988 C. F. Nixon
4095
UNA
Helianthus annuus L.
AMAL00003051 Madison 08 Aug 1997 Daniel D. Spaulding
9824
AMAL
Helianthus annuus L.
JSU114179 Jefferson 23 Sep 1984 M. G. Bussey
988
JSU
Helianthus annuus Linnaeus
AUA000004461 Jefferson 25 SEP 1977 SESSLER, ANN H.
1891
AUA
HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.
AUA000028106 Lauderdale 9 JUL 2015 ENGLAND, J. KEVIN
5532
AUA
HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.
UWAL0011163 Marengo 12 Jul 2012 England, J. Kevin
3681
UWAL
Helianthus annuus Linnaeus
JSU114178 Calhoun 20 Sep 1992 D. D. Spaulding
3120
JSU
Helianthus annuus Linnaeus
AUA000004464 Lee 19 JUN 1963 ROGERS, KENNETH E.
168
AUA
HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.
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