Azolla caroliniana

Family:SALVINIACEAE
Species:Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
Common Name:Carolina Mosquito Fern; Water Fern; Eastern Mosquito Fern
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Annual
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:**
Plant Notes:Carolina Mosquito Fern is a native herbaceous annual aquatic in the Floating Fern family (Salviniaceae). It can be found throughout Alabama. Carolina Mosquito Fern occurs in ponds and lakes, in slow moving streams, in canals, and in back waters and sloughs. It generally grows as a free floating mat, but may become stranded on mud due to flooding or in times of low water. The stems are prostrate and freely branched. The scale-like leaves are bilobed and occur in two rows. The upper leaf floats on the surface and the lower (and slightly larger) leaf is submerged. Leaves have 1-celled hairs on the upper surface of the upper lobe. Small feather-like roots are produced along the lower surface of the stem and hang freely in the water. Carolina Mosquito Fern reproduces primarily by fragmentation, but can also reproduce by forming spores. It is somewhat unusual for a fern in that two types of spores are produced—megaspores when give rise to the female gametophyte and microspores which give rise to the male gametophyte. Our plants are infrequently fertile. Carolina Mosquito Fern grows extremely fast under ideal conditions and can sometimes become a pest. It can form mats that completely cover the water’s surface and are several centimeters in thickness. This has been observed to prevent mosquito’s from being able to deposit their egg masses. Carolina Mosquito Fern is available from nurseries that sell aquatic plants for use in aquaria and pools. Mosquito Ferns have a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (Anabaena azollae Strasburger) located in cavities within their leaves. Various species of Azolla are grown in rice patties as a green fertilizer and have been used as animal feed. Carolina Mosquito Fern can be green in color or bright red. The red color is due to the compound 3-Deoxyanthocyanidin, which is produced in response to stress such as very bright light or very high or low temperatures.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native, OBL (NWI), G5 (Global Rank)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilySALVINIACEAE - Floating Fern family
Genus Azolla
Species Azolla caroliniana Willdenow - Carolina Mosquito Fern; Water Fern; Eastern Mosquito Fern

Citation

Citation Azolla caroliniana Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 5(1): 541. 1810.
Basionym: **
Type: SOUTH CAROLINA: Without data, Herb. Richard s.n. (holotype: B-W).

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

No synonyms exist for this species.

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Barbour, Bullock, Butler, Choctaw, Colbert, Conecuh, Dallas, Elmore, Greene, Hale, Jackson, Lauderdale, Lee, Limestone, Lowndes, Macon, Madison, Marengo, Marshall, Mobile, Montgomery, Morgan, Perry, Russell, Shelby, Sumter, Tuscaloosa, Washington, Wilcox

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: ALNHS, AMAL, AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1992 - 1992

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
SAMF0000370 Lauderdale 31 Jul 2011 Davenport, Lawrence J.
4749
SAMF
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UNA00068639 Sumter 03 Apr 2007 Mustain, Robert A.
195
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
AUA000038349 Morgan 4 Mar 2017 England, J. Kevin
7184
AUA
Azolla Caroliniana Willd.
UNA00053108 Hale 15 Mar 1983 Eylar, M.A.
249b
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
TROY000014094 Sumter 03 Apr 2007 Mustain, Robert A.
195
TROY
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UNA00053127 Morgan 22 Jul 1980 Meigs, Russell A.
1045
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UWAL0001163 Conecuh 06 Feb 2010 Diamond, Alvin R.
21135
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
AUA_ACC_39877 Conecuh 11 Nov 1984 Diamond, Alvin R.
161
AUA
Azolla Caroliniana Willd.
UNA00053147 Lowndes 18 Aug 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
766
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UNA00053124 Choctaw 02 Dec 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
939
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UNA00053131 Barbour 12 Jun 1979 Davenport, Lawrence J.
1136
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
AMAL00005327 Jackson 29 Jun 2002 Spaulding, Daniel D.
11425
AMAL
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
AUA_ACC_69568 Lowndes 31 Mar 2008 Hansen, Curtis J.
3262
AUA
Azolla Caroliniana Willd.
UNA00067455 Colbert 25 Oct 2007 Webb, David
6705
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UWAL0012891 Shelby 12 Apr 2013 England, J. Kevin
4114
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UWAL0001167 Sumter 03 Apr 2007 Mustain, Robert A.
195
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
TROY000042239 Marengo 29 Jun 2011 England, J. Kevin
3012
TROY
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UWAL0016594 Montgomery 21 Feb 2013 Spaulding, Daniel D.
13685
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
TROY000013229 Jackson 29 Jun 2002 Spaulding, Daniel D.
11425
TROY
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UNA00053148 Dallas 02 Oct 1977 Harvey, Denise
294
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
TROY000000038 Montgomery 22 Dec 2005 Diamond, Alvin R.
16091
TROY
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UNA00053149 Autauga 07 Jun 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
378
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UWAL0001169 Shelby 23 Oct 2008 Davenport, L.J.
3902
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UWAL0004866 Marengo 29 Jun 2011 England, J. Kevin
3012
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UNA00067454 Limestone 27 Sep 2007 Webb, David
6695
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
TROY000013256 Butler 06 Sep 2007 Diamond, Alvin R.
18051
TROY
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UWAL0047294 Jackson 02 Sep 2019 Webb, David H.
8757
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UWAL0033974 Marengo 16 Oct 2016 Keener, Brian R.
9881
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
TROY000049449 Lowndes 29 Oct 2018 Diamond, Alvin R.
28609
TROY
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UWAL0045704 Autauga 09 Oct 1989 Kral, Robert
77213
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
AMAL00014106 Sumter 03 Apr 2007 Mustain, Robert A.
195
AMAL
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UNA00053122 Madison 01 Aug 1978 Haynes, Robert R.
6823
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
AMAL00014693 Montgomery 22 Dec 2005 Diamond, Alvin R.
16091
AMAL
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UNA00053150 Montgomery 07 Jun 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
385
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UWAL0015947 Bullock 02 Nov 2012 Dykes, Bailee
1430
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UWAL0001166 Lowndes 31 Mar 2008 Hansen, Curtis J.
3262
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
TROY000046584 Autauga 11 May 2017 Parker, Matthew R.
759
TROY
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
TROY000048375 Marengo 16 Oct 2016 Keener, Brian R.
9881
TROY
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UWAL0051710 Tuscaloosa 12 Oct 2018 Spaulding, Daniel D.
15772
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
TROY000031865 Butler 04 Mar 2010 Diamond, Alvin R.
21162
TROY
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UNA00053112 Tuscaloosa 14 Feb 1987 Bowers, Frank D.
12461
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
AUA_ACC_802 Lee 26 Jul 1964 Boyd, C.E.
AUA
Azolla Caroliniana Willd.
UNA00053135 Mobile 1 Apr 1879 Mohr, Charles
s.n.
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UWAL0001164 Greene 15 Nov 2003 Walker, Rusty S.
136
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UWAL0042786 Baldwin 03 Sep 2003 Larsen, Harry S.
1324
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UNA00053146 Elmore 10 Jul 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
494
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
JSU105807 Jackson 22 Oct 1999 Brodeur, Kristin R.
2159
JSU
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
AMAL00017659 Dallas 26 Feb 2010 Barger, T. Wayne
OC-29
AMAL
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UNA00069672 Limestone 25 Apr 2007 Webb, David
6563
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UWAL0002158 Butler 04 Mar 2010 Diamond, Alvin R.
21162
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UNA00053136 Lowndes 17 Sep 1981 Lynch, Jan
80
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UWAL0016579 Montgomery 17 Sep 2012 Spaulding, Daniel D.
13584
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UNA00058284 Greene 17 Mar 1967 Thomas, Joab L.
T937
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UWAL0047083 Autauga 11 May 2017 Parker, Matthew R.
759
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UWAL0012563 Montgomery 17 Sep 2012 Spaulding, Daniel D.
13584
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
TROY000030101 Lowndes 31 Mar 2008 Hansen, Curtis J.
3262
TROY
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UNA00053144 Macon 24 Sep 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
881
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
SAMF0000369 Shelby 23 Oct 2008 Davenport, Lawrence J.
3902
SAMF
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UNA00053145 Marshall 07 Jul 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
487
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UWAL0001168 Sumter 28 Jun 1971 Boyd, Shirley
s.n.
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
SAMF0000372 Autauga 24 Feb 2006 Davenport, Lawrence J.
3402
SAMF
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UNA00069687 Lauderdale 01 Oct 2008 Webb, David
6852
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
AUA000038352 Limestone 4 Mar 2017 England, J. Kevin
7185
AUA
Azolla Caroliniana Willd.
UNA00023299 Tuscaloosa 20 Oct 1992 Kuhajda, Bernard R.
26
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
AMAL00002758 Montgomery 17 Sep 2012 Spaulding, Daniel D.
13584
AMAL
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UNA00059339 Jackson 29 Jun 2002 Spaulding, Daniel D.
11425
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UWAL0035089 Limestone 04 Mar 2017 England, J. Kevin
7185
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
AUA000043775 Madison 13 Sep 2019 Hansen, Curtis J.
7755
AUA
Azolla Caroliniana Willd.
SAMF0006584 Hale 17 Jun 2016 Davenport, Lawrence J.
6349
SAMF
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UNA00053111 Perry 19 Oct 1977 Davenport, Lawrence J.
261
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UNA00053125 Washington 06 Aug 1979 Davenport, Lawrence J.
1443
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
AUA_ACC_44337 Montgomery 25 Aug 1986 Diamond, Alvin R.
2694
AUA
Azolla Caroliniana Willd.
UWAL0051783 Morgan 19 Aug 2018 Spaulding, Daniel D.
15570
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
AMAL00023153 Marengo 16 Oct 2016 Keener, Brian R.
9881
AMAL
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
TROY000030601 Conecuh 06 Feb 2010 Diamond, Alvin R.
21135
TROY
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UWAL0039414 Limestone 20 Mar 2017 Webb, David H.
8367
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
TROY000031866 Lowndes 04 Mar 2010 Diamond, Alvin R.
21163
TROY
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UNA00053143 Greene 25 May 1978 Haynes, Robert R.
6501
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UWAL0002157 Lowndes 04 Mar 2010 Diamond, Alvin R.
21163
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UWAL0035088 Morgan 04 Mar 2017 England, J. Kevin
7184
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UNA00053141 Autauga 01 Jun 1952 Crawford, Lloyd C.
1800
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UNA00053128 Montgomery 11 Jun 1979 Davenport, Lawrence J.
1092
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
TROY000013228 Jackson 22 Oct 1999 Brodeur, Kristin R.
2159
TROY
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UNA00023298 Greene 25 Oct 1992 Burk, David H.
45
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
ALNHS00001677 Dallas 26 Nov 2012 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#879
ALNHS
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
AUA_ACC_27012 Russell 13 Jul 1968 Anonymous
AUA
Azolla Caroliniana Willd.
UWAL0049626 Colbert 17 Oct 2019 Webb, David H.
8847
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
TROY000038566 Bullock 02 Nov 2012 Dykes, Bailee
1430
TROY
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UNA00053126 Madison 20 Jul 1980 Meigs, Russell A.
1042
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UWAL0001165 Limestone 04 May 2007 Keener, Brian R.
3599
UWAL
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
SAMF0002976 Baldwin 03 Jun 2015 Davenport, Lawrence J.
5834
SAMF
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
UNA00053151 Wilcox 15 Jun 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
430
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UNA00053152 Autauga 01 Jun 1952 Crawford, Lloyd C.
1800
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
UNA00053138 Macon 11 Jun 1979 Davenport, Lawrence J.
1108
UNA
Azolla caroliniana Willd.
AMAL00004569 Montgomery 21 Feb 2013 Spaulding, Daniel D.
13685
AMAL
Azolla caroliniana Willdenow
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