Ctenium aromaticum

Family:POACEAE
Species:Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) Alph. Wood
Common Name:Toothache Grass; Orange Grass
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:**
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:**
Plant Notes:Toothache Grass is a native herbaceous perennial in the Grass family (Poaceae). It is native to the southern third of Alabama. Toothache Grass grows in pine flatwoods and savannahs, in pitcher plant bogs, and in ecotones along drainages. It is an erect cespitose (clump forming) perennial. The non-flowering plants are 1-2 feet in height. Old leaf sheathes are persistent and become fibrous at the base. Leaves are basal and alternate on the lower parts of stems, linear, with ciliate margins. The leaves are glabrous below and scabrous above. Leaves are bright green above and pale below. Flowers are produced in panicles at the top of nearly naked flowering stems that are 3-4 feet in height. The panicles are solitary and curved, with spikelets produced on one side of the rachis. The fruit is an awned grain. The lower parts of stems contain isobutylamides that numb the mouth when chewed, hence the common name. Toothache Grass is a fire dependent species and flowers in abundance the year after a fire. It is sometimes available from nurseries specializing in native grasses. Toothache Grass prefers full sun and a moist, sandy soil. The dried fruiting panicles are sometimes used in floral arrangements.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native, FACW (NWI)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyPOACEAE - Grass family
Genus Ctenium
Species Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) Alph. Wood - Toothache Grass; Orange Grass

Citation

Citation CTENIUM AROMATICUM (Walter) Alph. Wood, Class-Book Bot., ed. 1861 806. 1861.
Basionym: Aegilops aromatica Walter 1788.
Type: SOUTH CAROLINA: Georgetown Co.: 12 mi. N of Georgetown, 23 Jun 1939, Godfrey & Tryon 42 (neotype: GH; isoneotypes: BH, CA, DUKE, F, MO, NY, US). Neotypified by D. B. Ward, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1092. 2007.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Aegilops aromatica Aegilops aromatica Walter, Fl. Carol. 249. 1788. SOUTH CAROLINA: Georgetown Co.: 12 mi. N of Georgetown, 23 Jun 1939, Godfrey & Tryon 42 (neotype: GH; isoneotypes: BH, CA, DUKE, F, MO, NY, US). Neotypified by D. B. Ward, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1092. 2007.
Campulosus gracilis Campulosus gracilis Bertoloni, Mem. Reale Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna 2: 602, pl. 43(a-c). 1850. ALABAMA
Campulosus gracilior Campulosus gracilior Desvaux, Nouv. Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris 2: 189. 1810, nom. illegit.Chloris monostachya Michaux 1803. 
Campulosus monostachyus Campulosus monostachyus (Michaux) Palisot de Beauvois, Ess. Agrostogr. 64, 157, 158, pl. 13(1). 1812.Chloris monostachya Michaux 1803. 
Chloris monostachya Chloris monostachya Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 59. 1803. SOUTH CAROLINA
Ctenium americanum Ctenium americanum Sprengel, Syst. Veg. 1: 274. 1824 ("1825"), nom. illegit.Chloris monostachya Michaux 1803. 
Ctenium carolinianum Ctenium carolinianum Panzer, Denkschr. Königl. Akad. Wiss. München 4: 311. 1813, nom. illegit.Chloris monostachya Michaux 1803. 
Cynodon monostachyos Cynodon monostachyos (Michaux) Raspail, Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 5: 303. 1825.Chloris monostachya Michaux 1803. 
Monocera aromatica Monocera aromatica (Walter) Elliott, Sketch Bot. S. Carolina 1: 177, pl. 11(3). 1816.Aegilops aromatica Walter 1788. 
Nardus scorpioides Nardus scorpioides Lamarck, Tabl. Encycl. 1: 152. 1791.  
Triatherus aromaticus Triatherus aromaticus (Walter) Rafinesque, Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. 3: 99. 1818.Aegilops aromatica Walter 1788. 
Campulosus aromaticus Campulosus aromaticus (Walter) Lamson-Scribner, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 5: 45. 1894.Aegilops aromatica Walter 1788. 

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Baldwin, Bullock, Butler, Coffee, Conecuh, Covington, Crenshaw, Escambia, Geneva, Houston, Mobile, Monroe, Pike, Washington

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AUA, JSU, TROY, UNA, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1998 - 2006

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
UNA00003622 Mobile s.d. Charles Mohr
s.n.
UNA
Ctenium aromaticum (Walt.) Wood
AUA000015974 Pike 29 JUL 1990 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
7061
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
AUA000029406 Covington 22 OCT 2009 HANSEN, CURTIS J.
4566
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
AUA000015962 Baldwin 26 JUL 1969 REBOIS, R. V.
108
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
UNA00060856 Bullock 04 Sep 2003 Alvin R. Diamond
14117
UNA
Ctenium aromaticum (Walt.) Wood
AUA000015968 Crenshaw 5 AUG 1995 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
9797
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
AUA000015963 Bullock 4 SEP 2003 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
14117
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
UNA00065980 Covington 01 Aug 2003 R. Kral
94339
UNA
Ctenium aromaticum (Walt.) Wood
TROY000011816 Coffee 01 Sep 1999 Brian H. Martin
173
TROY
Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) Wood
AUA000015971 Escambia 25 JUL 1969 MOORE, HAROLD D.
458-69
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
TROY000011820 Escambia 20 Aug 1981 Robert Kral
67774
TROY
Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) Wood
AUA000015965 Conecuh 9 SEP 1992 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
8451
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
AUA000015970 Escambia 23 OCT 1982 GRAVES, TOM
90
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
AUA000015960 Baldwin 27 AUG 1969 MOORE, HAROLD D.
666-69
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
AUA000015967 Covington 12 OCT 1973 FLOURNOY, DENISE R.
168
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
UWAL0042988 Baldwin 22 Jun 1993 Walker, M.M.
149
UWAL
Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) Wood
UWAL0030808 Mobile 09 Jun 1996 Kral, R.
86016
UWAL
Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) Wood
TROY000011815 Bullock 04 Sep 2003 Alvin R. Diamond
14117
TROY
Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) Wood
JSU108258 Baldwin 28 Sep 1985 R. D. Whetstone
15263
JSU
Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) Wood
AUA000015972 Geneva 18 AUG 1970 MOORE, HAROLD D.
664
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
AUA000015966 Covington 7 NOV 1993 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
8953
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
AUA000015973 Mobile 23 SEP 1981 HENDERSON, T.
617
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
TROY000011817 Covington 01 Aug 2003 Robert Kral
94339
TROY
Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) Wood
AUA000015969 Escambia 22 OCT 1982 WILBURN, JOHN C.
103
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
UNA00056251 Geneva 20 Sep 1998 John R. MacDonald
12088
UNA
Ctenium aromaticum (Walt.) Wood
AUA000015957 Baldwin 22 JUL 1967 TEEM, DAVID H.
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
AUA000027044 Baldwin 11 DEC 2007 BARGER, T. WAYNE
PERD-278
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
TROY000011818 Covington 03 Oct 2001 Michael Woods
8910
TROY
Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) Wood
UWAL0043952 Baldwin 27 Jun 1995 Larsen, H.S.
213
UWAL
Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) Alph. Wood
UWAL0034277 Baldwin 07 Jun 1995 Kral, R.
84935
UWAL
Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) Wood
AUA000032979 Covington 13 Sep 2010 HANSEN, CURTIS J.
4858
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
TROY000029562 Butler 01 Oct 2009 Alvin R. Diamond
20985
TROY
Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) Wood
AUA000015959 Baldwin 15 JUN 1968 BURTTRAM, A. KENNETH
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
UNA00065631 Crenshaw 12 Aug 2006 Alvin R. Diamond
16802
UNA
Ctenium aromaticum (Walt.) Wood
UWAL0017779 Washington 28 Jul 1990 Kral, R.
78252
UWAL
Ctenium aromaticum (Walt.) Wood
UWAL0006288 Monroe 23 Sep 1982 Kral, R.
69598
UWAL
Ctenium aromaticum (Walt.) Wood
AUA000015961 Baldwin 26 JUL 1969 MOORE, HAROLD D.
514-69
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
UWAL0034822 Conecuh 18 Sep 1993 Kral, R.
83310
UWAL
Ctenium aromaticum (Walt.) Wood
JSU108257 Baldwin 10 Aug 1993 D. D. Spaulding
4284
JSU
Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) Wood
AUA000015958 Baldwin 26 JUL 1969 ATKESON, THOMAS D.
183
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
UWAL0008833 Escambia 20 Aug 1981 Kral, R.
67774
UWAL
Ctenium aromaticum (Walt.) Wood
AUA000015964 Butler 21 AUG 1884 SMITH, J. D.
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
TROY000011819 Crenshaw 12 Aug 2006 Alvin R. Diamond
16802
TROY
Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) Wood
AUA000015975 Washington 17 SEP 1981 HENDERSON, T.
576
AUA
CTENIUM AROMATICUM (WALT.) WOOD
UWAL0030810 Mobile 18 Aug 1987 Kral, R.
74385
UWAL
Ctenium aromaticum (Walt.) Wood
TROY000028058 Covington 23 Jul 2009 Alvin R. Diamond
20825
TROY
Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) Wood
JSU108259 Houston 09 Jun 1996 John R. MacDonald
9585
JSU
Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) Wood
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