Spiranthes vernalis

Family:ORCHIDACEAE
Species:Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
Common Name:Spring Ladies' Tresses
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:SPVE
Plant Notes:Spring Ladies' Tresses is a native herbaceous perennial in the Orchid family (Orchidaceae). It occurs throughout Alabama. Spring Ladies' Tresses occurs in lawns, on roadsides, in roadside ditches, in pastures, in cemeteries, and in open woodlands. It is a perennial with thick, brittle, fleshy roots. There are 4-5 linear to lanceolate basal leaves that have entire margins and are strongly keeled (folded). The leaves may be senescing at flowering time. Flowering stems are up to 18 inches in height. The lower portion of the spike has several reduced alternate leaves, becoming sheathing bracts up the stem. Flowers are produced in a spike. The flowers are loosely to tightly spiraled. Height of the flowering stems, size and number of flowers, and degree of spiraling varies greatly. The rachis (main axis of the inflorescence) and ovaries are densely pubescent with non-glandular hairs. The flowers are white in color. The three sepals are lanceolate and distinct, with the two lateral ones spreading. The three petals form a gaping tube. The lip (lower petal) is marked with light yellow or occasionally with two orange or brown dots near its center. The flowers are fragrant. The fruit is a capsule with many dust-like seed. This is probably our most common orchid species and can be abundant in some locations.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native, FACW- (NWI)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyORCHIDACEAE - Orchid family
Genus Spiranthes
Species Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray - Spring Ladies' Tresses

Citation

Citation SPIRANTHES VERNALIS Engelmann & A. Gray, Boston J. Nat. Hist. 5: 236. 1845.
Basionym: **
Type: TEXAS: Galveston Co.: Near Galveston,

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Gyrostachys linearis Gyrostachys linearis Rydberg, in Britton, Man. Fl. N. States 300. 1901. NEW JERSEY: Bergen Co.: Closter, 1858, Austin s.n. (holotype: NY; isotype: NY).
Gyrostachys reverchonii Gyrostachys reverchonii Small, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 25: 610. 1898. TEXAS: Dallas Co.: Lancaster, Jun, Reverchon s.n. (holotype: NY).
Gyrostachys vernalis Gyrostachys vernalis (Engelmann & Gray) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 664. 1891.Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray 1845. 
Gyrostachys xyridifolia Gyrostachys xyridifolia Small, Fl. S.E. U.S. 318, 1329. 1903. FLORIDA: Duval Co.: Near Jacksonville, 12 May 1894, Curtiss 4856 (lectotype: NY). Lectotypified by Catling, in herb., 1980.
Ibidium xyridifolium Ibidium xyridifolium (Small) Small, Fl. S.E. U.S., ed. 2. 319. 1913.Gyrostachys xyridifolia Small 1903. 
Ibidium vernale Ibidium vernale (Engelmann & Gray) House, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 32: 381. 1905.Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray 1845. 
Ophrys aestivalis Ophrys aestivalis Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 157. 1803.  
Spiranthes neglecta Spiranthes neglecta Ames,Rhodora 6: 30, pl. 51, f. 4. 1904. MASSACHUSETTS: Bristol Co.: Easton, Sep 1903, Eaton s.n. (holotype: GH).
Triorchis linearis Triorchis linearis (Rydberg) Nieuwland, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 123. 1913.Gyrostachys linearis Rydberg 1901. 
Triorchis vernalis Triorchis vernalis (Engelmann & Gray) House, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 6: 206. 1920.Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray 1845. 
Triorchis xyridifolia Triorchis xyridifolia (Small) House, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 6: 206. 1920.Gyrostachys xyridifolia Small 1903. 

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Baldwin, Barbour, Bibb, Blount, Bullock, Butler, Calhoun, Clarke, Clay, Coffee, Conecuh, Coosa, Covington, Crenshaw, Cullman, Dale, Dallas, Escambia, Etowah, Henry, Jackson, Jefferson, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Lee, Limestone, Madison, Marengo, Marshall, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Perry, Pike, Randolph, Shelby, St. Clair, Talladega, Tuscaloosa

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AMAL, AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, UNAF, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1960 - 2004

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
JSU113659 Lawrence 6 Jun 1975 R. D. Whetstone
4387
JSU
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
SAMF0000762 Jefferson 05 Sep 2006 Davenport, L. J.
3548
SAMF
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
TROY000011394 Covington 05 Jun 2004 Alvin R. Diamond
14427
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
UNA00008544 Coosa 02 Jul 1979 L. J. Davenport
1282
UNA
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
UNA00008514 Henry 13 Jun 1979 Robert R. Haynes
7229
UNA
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
UWAL0043767 Baldwin 27 May 2002 McArthur, Jill D.
UWAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & A. Gray
AUA_ACC049363 Crenshaw 29 MAY 1988 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
4898
AUA
SPIRANTHES VERNALIS ENGELM. & GRAY
AMAL00010187 Marshall 25 Jun 1993 J. M. Ballard
2638
AMAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
TROY000035283 St. Clair 06 Jun 2008 Brian R. Keener
4572
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
SAMF0001900 Etowah 01 Jul 2014 Davenport, L. J.
5619
SAMF
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
UWAL0031871 Dale 22 May 2015 Diamond, Alvin R.
26368
UWAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
UNAF0001590 Baldwin 11 May 1962 Landers, K.E.
s.n.
UNAF
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
TROY000011391 Butler 27 May 2007 Alvin R. Diamond
17657
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
SAMF0000755 Baldwin 24 May 1980 Davenport, L. J.
1892
SAMF
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
JSU113663 Marshall 25 Jun 1973 K. E. Landers
s.n.
JSU
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
UWAL0037446 Bullock 18 May 2016 Soehren, Eric C.
0294
UWAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & A. Gray
JSU113655 Etowah 9 Jun 1975 R. D. Whetstone
4608
JSU
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
AUA_ACC042111 Conecuh 4 JUN 1986 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
2552
AUA
SPIRANTHES VERNALIS ENGELM. & GRAY
UWAL0013829 Conecuh 25 May 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24111
UWAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
UNA00008549 Shelby 30 Jun 1979 L. J. Davenport
1208
UNA
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
UNA00008510 Coffee 15 Jun 1979 Robert R. Haynes
7287
UNA
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
UWAL0043766 Baldwin 27 May 2002 McArthur, Jill D.
1141
UWAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & A. Gray
AUA_ACC017545 Lee 25 JUN 1969 THORNHILL, RANDY
046
AUA
SPIRANTHES VERNALIS ENGELM. & GRAY
UNA00063068 Covington 05 Jun 2004 Alvin R. Diamond
14427
UNA
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
AMAL00010197 Madison 25 Jun 1993 J. M. Ballard
2715
AMAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
TROY000035282 Etowah 07 Jun 2008 Brian R. Keener
4587
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
SAMF0002945 Jefferson 03 Apr 2012 Davenport, L. J.
5060
SAMF
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
UWAL0030104 Monroe 27 May 2015 Diamond, Alvin R.
26383
UWAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
UNAF0001593 Lauderdale 20 Jun 1991 Rickard, Mike.
s.n.
UNAF
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
UWAL0038498 Baldwin 18 May 1975 LeLong, Michel G.
8467
UWAL
Spiranthes vernalis Englem. & A. Gray
SAMF0000758 Covington 28 May 2010 Davenport, L. J.
4289
SAMF
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
JSU113658 Jackson 22 Jun 1999 K. R. Brodeur
2118
JSU
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
TROY000026822 Escambia 09 May 2005 Robert Kral
96322
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
AUA_ACC063755 Covington 5 JUN 2004 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
14427
AUA
SPIRANTHES VERNALIS ENGELM. & GRAY
UNA00055905 Bibb 14 Oct 1999 Robert Burckhalter
2810
UNA
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
TROY000042474 Dale 22 May 2015 Alvin R. Diamond
26368
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
SAMF0000760 Randolph 13 Oct 2009 Davenport, L. J.
4108
SAMF
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
UWAL0005056 Lawrence 12 Jun 2008 England, J. Kevin
0796
UWAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
UWAL0012353 Bullock 10 May 2012 Dykes, Bailee
0652
UWAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
JSU113660 Lee 18 Jun 1973 SK Spencer
018
JSU
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
AUA_ACC026656 Lee 12 JUN 1973 DENDY, J.
S. N.
AUA
SPIRANTHES VERNALIS ENGELM. & GRAY
JSU113648 Calhoun 15 Jun 1994 L. M. Hodge
1909
JSU
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
TROY000026161 Crenshaw 21 May 2008 Alvin R. Diamond
19294
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
UWAL0015476 Baldwin 06 Jun 2014 England, J. Kevin
4913
UWAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
UWAL0043765 Baldwin 11 May 2000 Larsen, H.S.
574
UWAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
TROY000037241 Conecuh 25 May 2013 Alvin R. Diamond
24111
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
UWAL0002737 Marengo 30 May 2010 England, J. Kevin
2439
UWAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
JSU113650 Calhoun 17 Jun 1969 Jan Cofield
s.n.
JSU
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
AUA_ACC054155 Baldwin 22 MAY 1975 KRAL, ROBERT
55737B
AUA
SPIRANTHES VERNALIS ENGELM. & GRAY
JSU113661 Limestone 28 Jun 1996 R. D. Whetstone
18078
JSU
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
SAMF0000757 Jefferson 05 Jun 2004 Davenport, L. J.
3103
SAMF
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
TROY000011392 Butler 04 Jun 2005 Alvin R. Diamond
15409
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
UNA00008505 Bullock 12 Jun 1979 Robert R. Haynes
7207
UNA
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
AMAL00019344 Escambia 9 May 2005 R. Kral
96322
AMAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
AUA_ACC052051 Bullock 27 MAY 1991 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
7399
AUA
SPIRANTHES VERNALIS ENGELM. & GRAY
UWAL0035336 Mobile 20 May 2016 Horne, Howard E.
3172
UWAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
AMAL00005520 Marengo 30 May 2010 J. Kevin England
2439
AMAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
UWAL0031581 Lawrence 15 Jun 2013 England, J. Kevin
4315
UWAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A.Gray
JSU113653 Etowah 9 Jun 1994 L. M. Hodge
2270
JSU
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
TROY000026160 Butler 26 May 2007 Alvin R. Diamond
17634
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
TROY000043288 Baldwin 04 Jun 2014 J. Kevin England
4909
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Englemann & A. Gray
JSU113665 Pike 22 Jun 1984 R. D. Whetstone
14168
JSU
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
AUA_ACC072232 Baldwin 4 JUN 2014 ENGLAND, J. KEVIN
4909
AUA
SPIRANTHES VERNALIS ENGELM. & GRAY
SAMF0000753 Baldwin 24 May 1980 Davenport, L. J.
1882
SAMF
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
JSU113666 Randolph 20 Jun 1973 K. E. Landers
s.n.
JSU
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
TROY000011396 Mobile 26 May 2003 Daniel D. Spaulding
11879
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
JSU113664 Mobile 3 Jun 1970 R. Kral
39599
JSU
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
AUA_ACC052844 Crenshaw 4 JUN 1989 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
5905
AUA
SPIRANTHES VERNALIS ENGELM. & GRAY
TROY000046469 Montgomery 03 Jun 2014 Alvin R. Diamond
25137
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
UNA00065237 Baldwin 24 May 1980 L. J. Davenport
1892
UNA
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
UNA00008529 Coosa 22 Jun 1980 Robert R. Haynes
7900
UNA
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
TROY000048305 Pike 29 May 2019 Alvin R. Diamond
28946
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
TROY000011397 Mobile 11 May 2000 Robert Kral
89694
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
JSU113662 Marshall 25 Jun 1992 D. D. Spaulding
2137
JSU
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
UNA00055618 Blount 16 Jun 1998 Brian R. Keener
1052
UNA
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
AMAL00019314 Calhoun 15 Jun 1990 L. M. Hodge
1907
AMAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
AMAL00001326 Baldwin 26 May 2002 Brian R. Keener
2090
AMAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
AUA_ACC023226 Lee 19 JUN 1971 BURDETT, R. A.
020
AUA
SPIRANTHES VERNALIS ENGELM. & GRAY
UNAF0001591 Morgan 22 Jun 1992 Spencer, Lisa
s.n.
UNAF
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
AUA_ACC037389 Clarke 4 MAY 1981 HENDERSON, T.
026
AUA
SPIRANTHES VERNALIS ENGELM. & GRAY
JSU113667 Talladega 22 May 1999 K. R. Brodeur
2185
JSU
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
AMAL00016927 Baldwin 17 Jun 2009 T. Wayne Barger
617
AMAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
AUA_ACC065132 Butler 4 JUN 2005 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
15409
AUA
SPIRANTHES VERNALIS ENGELM. & GRAY
TROY000046288 Montgomery 04 Jun 2017 Alvin R. Diamond
27843
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
UNA00027299 Tuscaloosa 08 Oct 1960 R. L. Chermock
s.n.
UNA
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
UNAF0001592 Morgan 16 Jun 1992 Blanton, Laura
s.n.
UNAF
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
SAMF0000756 Barbour 13 Jun 1979 Davenport, L. J.
1138
SAMF
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
UWAL0005057 Lawrence 12 Jun 2008 England, J. Kevin
0795
UWAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
AMAL00009012 Covington 5 Jun 2004 A. R. Diamond
14427
AMAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
UNA00061143 Mobile 26 May 2003 D. D. Spaulding
11879
UNA
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
AUA_ACC000159 Covington 3 JUN 1952 DAVIS, DONALD E.
AUA
SPIRANTHES VERNALIS ENGELM. & GRAY
UWAL0039913 Henry 21 May 2017 Diamond, Alvin R.
27830
UWAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
UWAL0015470 Baldwin 04 Jun 2014 England, J. Kevin
4909
UWAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
AMAL00001327 Blount 16 Jun 1998 Brian R. Keener
1052
AMAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
JSU113651 Calhoun 8 Jun 1987 C. L. Lawler
1609
JSU
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
TROY000011390 Baldwin 26 May 2002 Brian R. Keener
2090
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
JSU113657 Etowah 9 Jun 1975 J. Massey
4687
JSU
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
SAMF0001635 Butler 24 May 2008 Diamond, A. R.
19317
SAMF
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
TROY000038582 Bullock 10 May 2012 Bailee Dykes
652
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
AUA_ACC055128 Crenshaw 4 JUN 1995 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
9576
AUA
SPIRANTHES VERNALIS ENGELM. & GRAY
TROY000045844 Montgomery 03 Jun 2014 Alvin R. Diamond
25137
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
UNA00051000 Perry 16 Nov 1995 Michelle Birk
647
UNA
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
UNA00008509 Talladega 21 Jun 1980 Russell A. Meigs
870
UNA
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
TROY000048008 Pike 15 May 2019 Michael Woods
11072
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
TROY000011395 Dale 10 Jun 2000 Tiffany Pennington
790
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
TROY000042228 Marengo 30 May 2010 J. Kevin England
2439
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
UNA00058064 Baldwin 26 May 2002 Brian R. Keener
2090
UNA
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
AUA_ACC000156 Covington 3 JUN 1952 DAVIS, DONALD E.
AUA
SPIRANTHES VERNALIS ENGELM. & GRAY
AMAL00007938 Mobile 26 May 2003 D. D. Spaulding
11879
AMAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
AUA_ACC069584 Covington 21 MAY 2009 HANSEN, CURTIS J.
4070
AUA
SPIRANTHES VERNALIS ENGELM. & GRAY
TROY000033110 Covington 21 May 2009 Curtis J. Hansen
4070
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
AUA_ACC011363 Lee 16 JUN 1966 JOHNSON, WYLIE C.
AUA
SPIRANTHES VERNALIS ENGELM. & GRAY
JSU113654 Etowah 9 Jun 1975 J. Massey
4687
JSU
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
AMAL00019691 Dallas 24 May 2010 T. Wayne Barger
211
AMAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
SAMF0000754 Lawrence 04 Oct 2011 Davenport, L. J.
4906
SAMF
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
TROY000011393 Conecuh 04 Jun 2005 Alvin R. Diamond
15405
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
UNA00008519 Clay 02 Jul 1979 Robert R. Haynes
7364
UNA
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
AMAL00001328 Mobile 11 May 2000 R. Kral
89694
AMAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
AUA_ACC050866 Dale 25 MAY 1991 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
7374
AUA
SPIRANTHES VERNALIS ENGELM. & GRAY
TROY000042933 Monroe 27 May 2015 Alvin R. Diamond
26383
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
UWAL0009205 Etowah 07 Jun 2008 Keener, Brian R.
4587
UWAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
AMAL00019588 Mobile 1 May 2012 Howard E. Horne
1775
AMAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
UWAL0009208 St. Clair 06 Jun 2008 Keener, Brian R.
4572
UWAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
JSU113656 Etowah 19 Jun 1994 L. M. Hodge
2668
JSU
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
TROY000026159 Butler 24 May 2008 Alvin R. Diamond
19317
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
UWAL0005055 Butler 24 May 2008 Diamond, A.R.
19317
UWAL
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray
JSU113652 Cullman 12 Jun 1976 R. D. Whetstone
8528
JSU
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
SAMF0000759 St. Clair 18 Oct 2011 Davenport, L. J.
4946
SAMF
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
TROY000028186 Lawrence 12 Jun 2008 J. Kevin England
795
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
TROY000045416 Henry 21 May 2017 Alvin R. Diamond
27830
TROY
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & A. Gray
JSU113649 Calhoun 17 Jun 1969 Jerry A. Clonts
s.n.
JSU
Spiranthes vernalis Engelmann & Gray
AUA_ACC019622 Baldwin 3 MAY 1969 MOORE, HAROLD D.
174-69
AUA
SPIRANTHES VERNALIS ENGELM. & GRAY
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