Listera australis

Family:ORCHIDACEAE
Species:Listera australis Lindley
Common Name:Southern Twayblade; Long Lip Twayblade
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:LIAU3
Plant Notes:Southern Twayblade is a native perennial in the Orchid family (Orchidaceae). It can be found throughout Alabama. Southern Twayblade grows in wet hardwood or hardwood/pine forests, along streams, and in seeps. It grows from 3-10 inches tall, with most plants closer to 3 inches in height. The stem is purple or green in color, glabrous, and somewhat succulent. Two opposite ovate or elliptic leaves occur on the stem. The leaves have entire margins. Flowers are produced in terminal racemes of 5-25 flowers. The flowers are greenish or reddish in color. The recurved petals and sepals are approximately 1 mm in length, except for the lip. The lip petal is split into two linear-lanceolate lobes that are up to ½ inch long. The fruit is an ovoid capsule with many minute seed. The perianth parts persist on the developing capsule. Southern Twayblade is a small non-showy plant that is easily over looked. It may be more common than records suggest. It can often be found associated with sphagnum moss, Cinnamon fern (Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (Linnaeus) C. Presl), and Royal Fern (Osmunda spectabilis Willdenow). Some groups such as the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and the American Orchid Society refer to this species by the name Neottia bifolia (Raf.) Baumbach. Southern Twayblade is listed as an S2 species in Alabama (typically 6 to 20 occurrences, few remaining individuals, acres, or miles of stream, or factors demonstrably making it very vulnerable in the state), and globally as a G4 species (imperiled globally because of rarity (6 - 20 occurrences, or few remaining acres, or miles of stream) or very vulnerable to extinction throughout its range because of other factors). As many of our native orchids are, Southern Twayblade is difficult to grow in cultivation. Plants form an association with a fungus that acts as an accessory root system, supplying the orchid with water and nutrients. Do not pick or try to transplant any of our native orchids.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native, FACW (NWI), S2 (State Rank), G4 (Global Rank)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyORCHIDACEAE - Orchid family
Genus Listera
Species Listera australis Lindley - Southern Twayblade; Long Lip Twayblade

Citation

Citation LISTERA AUSTRALIS Lindley, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 456. 1840.
Basionym: **
Type: SOUTH CAROLINA:

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Bifolium australis Bifolium australis (Lindley) Nieuwland, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 129. 1913.Listera australis Lindley 1840. 
Ophrys australis Ophrys australis (Lindley) House, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 32: 379. 1905.Listera australis Lindley 1840. 

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Baldwin, Bibb, Blount, Bullock, Butler, Choctaw, Clay, Coffee, Conecuh, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, Dallas, Etowah, Fayette, Jefferson, Lawrence, Lee, Macon, Madison, Marengo, Monroe, Pike, Shelby, St. Clair, Sumter, Tuscaloosa, Wilcox

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AMAL, AUA, JSU, TROY, UNA, UNAF, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1980 - 2005

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
40654AUA_ACC Jefferson 9 APR 1985 BUSSEY, MELANIE G.
1383
AUA
LISTERA AUSTRALIS LINDL.
UNAF0001580 Blount 16 Mar 1974 Goode, Nila
s.n.
UNAF
Listera australis Lindley
52138AUA_ACC Pike 14 MAR 1992 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
7971
AUA
LISTERA AUSTRALIS LINDL.
52296AUA_ACC Dale 5 APR 1992 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
8055
AUA
LISTERA AUSTRALIS LINDL.
UNA00008522 Conecuh 21 Mar 1987 Robert R. Haynes
8816
UNA
Listera australis Lindl.
45252AUA_ACC Conecuh 21 MAR 1987 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
3040
AUA
LISTERA AUSTRALIS LINDL.
AMAL00000723 Dallas 15 Apr 2010 T. Wayne Barger
118
AMAL
Listera australis Lindley
AMAL00001304 Madison 8 Apr 1997 S. J. Threlkeld
976
AMAL
Listera australis Lindley
72046AUA_ACC Monroe 11 APR 2014 MINCEY, K. A.
24
AUA
LISTERA AUSTRALIS LINDL.
UWAL0014165 Bullock 28 Mar 2013 Dykes, Bailee
1543
UWAL
Listera australis Lindley
JSU113507 Etowah 13 Apr 1996 L. Hodge-Spaulding
4442
JSU
Listera australis Lindley
JSU113506 Clay 14 Apr 1971 Blanche Dean
345-1
JSU
Listera australis Lindley
JSU113509 Jefferson 9 Apr 1985 J. P. Barber
1383
JSU
Listera australis Lindley
UWAL0036924 Covington 24 Feb 2017 England, J. Kevin
7140
UWAL
Listera australis Lindley
AMAL00012784 Choctaw 16 Mar 2003 R. Kral
93640
AMAL
Listera australis Lindley
62594AUA_ACC Lee 21 APR 2003 LOEWENSTEIN, NANCY J.
AUA
LISTERA AUSTRALIS LINDL.
TROY000011357 Coffee 07 Mar 2000 Brian H. Martin
477
TROY
Listera australis Lindley
TROY000034624 Butler 04 Mar 2012 Alvin R. Diamond
22809
TROY
Listera australis Lindley
UNA00008527 Lawrence 09 May 1987 Robert R. Haynes
9124
UNA
Listera australis Lindl.
JSU113508 Jefferson 22 Mar 1985 J. P. Barber
1314
JSU
Listera australis Lindley
UNA00063647 Bibb 28 Mar 2004 Alfred Schotz
1926
UNA
Listera australis Lindl.
AMAL00014332 Baldwin 19 Feb 2008 T. Wayne Barger
172
AMAL
Listera australis Lindley
TROY000026581 Lawrence 17 Apr 2005 Brian R. Keener
2622
TROY
Listera australis Lindley
UWAL0038746 Choctaw 17 Mar 2018 Keener, Brian R.
10511
UWAL
Listera australis Lindley
TROY000038205 Bullock 28 Mar 2013 Bailee Dykes
1543
TROY
Listera australis Lindl.
48648AUA_ACC Pike 15 MAR 1988 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
4219
AUA
LISTERA AUSTRALIS LINDL.
TROY000042021 Pike 10 Mar 2015 Alvin R. Diamond
26006
TROY
Listera australis Lindley
JSU113510 Shelby 4 Apr 1993 R. D. Whetstone
16202
JSU
Listera australis Lindley
UNA00045874 St. Clair 30 Mar 1998 Brian R. Keener
549
UNA
Listera australis Lindl.
UWAL0005039 Wilcox 13 Mar 2008 Keener, Brian R.
4051
UWAL
Listera australis Lindl.
UWAL0012899 Shelby 12 Apr 2013 England, J. Kevin
4121
UWAL
Listera australis Lindley
UNA00008542 Wilcox 16 Apr 1980 Robert R. Haynes
7723
UNA
Listera australis Lindl.
52560AUA_ACC Bullock 20 MAR 1990 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
6741
AUA
LISTERA AUSTRALIS LINDL.
UWAL0033905 Fayette 30 Mar 2016 Keener, Brian R.
9440
UWAL
Listera australis Lindley
TROY000037411 Butler 17 Mar 2013 Alvin R. Diamond
23826
TROY
Listera australis Lindley
TROY000011356 Choctaw 16 Mar 2003 Robert Kral
93640
TROY
Listera australis Lindley
64673AUA_ACC Lawrence 17 APR 2005 KEENER, BRIAN R.
2622
AUA
LISTERA AUSTRALIS LINDL.
62595AUA_ACC Bullock 3 APR 2003 UNDERWOOD, W.
AUA
LISTERA AUSTRALIS LINDL.
TROY000026580 Lawrence 17 Apr 2005 Daniel D. Spaulding
12243
TROY
Listera australis Lindley
UNA00008517 Crenshaw 21 Mar 1987 Robert R. Haynes
8856
UNA
Listera australis Lindl.
UWAL0005038 Sumter 08 Apr 2005 Keener, Brian R.
2610
UWAL
Listera australis Lindl.
62581AUA_ACC Macon 21 APR 2003 BIRKHEAD, ROGER
AUA
LISTERA AUSTRALIS LINDL.
UNA00008537 Monroe 15 Apr 1980 John H. Wiersema
1491
UNA
Listera australis Lindl.
50955AUA_ACC Bullock 4 MAR 1990 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
6677
AUA
LISTERA AUSTRALIS LINDL.
UNA00008532 Tuscaloosa 19 Apr 1983 Robert R. Haynes
8713
UNA
Listera australis Lindl.
39923AUA_ACC Conecuh 21 APR 1983 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
AUA
LISTERA AUSTRALIS LINDL.
UNA00058666 Lawrence 17 Apr 2005 Brian R. Keener
2622
UNA
Listera australis Lindl.
UNA00058718 Sumter 08 Apr 2005 Brian R. Keener
2610
UNA
Listera australis Lindl.
TROY000028760 Marengo 27 Feb 2008 J. Kevin England
1637
TROY
Listera australis Lindley
AMAL00011655 Lawrence 17 Apr 2005 Daniel D. Spaulding
12243
AMAL
Listera australis Lindley
UWAL0005037 Marengo 27 Feb 2008 England, J. Kevin
1637
UWAL
Listera australis Lindl.
45251AUA_ACC Conecuh 17 MAR 1987 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
3039
AUA
LISTERA AUSTRALIS LINDL.
UWAL0015612 Lawrence 26 Mar 2006 England, J. Kevin
0460
UWAL
Listera australis Lindley
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