Trillium maculatum

Family:TRILLIACEAE
Species:Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
Common Name:Spotted Trillium; Spotted Wakerobin; Mottled Trillium
Habitat:Hardwood forests, in ravines, in rocky woods, on cedar glades, and along streams
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:TRMA5
Plant Notes:Spotted Trillium is a native perennial in the Bunchflower family (Melanthiaceae). It occurs primarily in central and southern Alabama. Spotted Trillium occurs in hardwood forests, in ravines, in rocky woods, on cedar glades, and along streams. It is a perennial from a horizontal rhizome. Usually a single scape is produced from each rhizome. The stems are 8-12 inches high. Each stem has a single whorl of three leaves at its apex. The leaves are ovate to elliptic in outline with a rounded or shortly acuminate apex. The leaves are mottled in dark green and silver green. The flower is sessile just above the leaves. Each flower has three sepals that are horizontal with recurved tips. The sepals are greenish on the outer surface and maroon on the inner surface. There are three erect petals. The petals are spathulate (spoon shaped). Petals are usually maroon, but rare individuals may have petals that are brownish toward the base and yellow at the apex, or completely clear lemon yellow. The fruit is a fleshy berry-like capsule. Each seed has an oily white elaiosome attached on one side. The elaiosome is rich in oils, lipids, and proteins. It is eaten by ants who discard the seed, aiding in its dispersal. Spotted Trillium is occasionally available from wildflower nurseries. Only purchase plants from sources that have grown them and not collected them from the wild. Spotted Trillium prefers full to partial shade and a mesic soil rich in organic matter. Spotted Trillium is more tolerant of poor sandy soils and dryer conditions than other members of the genus.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native
References:Freeman, J.D. Revision of Trillium Subgenus Phyllantherum (Liliaceae). Brittonia 27: 1-62.
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyTRILLIACEAE - Trillium Family family
Genus Trillium
Species Trillium maculatum Rafinesque - Spotted Trillium; Spotted Wakerobin; Mottled Trillium

Citation

Citation Trillium maculatum Rafinesque, Med. Fl. 2: 103. 1830.
Basionym: **
Type: SOUTH CAROLINA: Without data, Elliott s.n. (lectotype: CHARL). Lectotypified by Freeman, Brittonia 27: 27. 1975.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

No synonyms exist for this species.

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Bullock, Butler, Chilton, Choctaw, Clay, Conecuh, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, Henry, Jackson, Lee, Lowndes, Macon, Marengo, Monroe, Pike, Russell, Tallapoosa, Washington, Wilcox

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AMAL, AUA, TROY, UNA, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
AMAL00001228 Henry 17 Mar 2000 John R. MacDonald
13749
AMAL
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
UNA00053608 Lee 6 Mar 1989 Robert R. Haynes
9377
UNA
Trillium maculatum Raf.
AUA000000281 Crenshaw 26 MAR 1985 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
236
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
UWAL0018533 Lowndes 06 Apr 1993 Kral, R.
81980
UWAL
Trillium maculatum Raf.
AMAL00014144 Wilcox 13 Mar 2008 Brian R. Keener
4054
AMAL
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
AUA000000277 Clay 12 APR 1981 CAUSEY, ANN S.
2121
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
UWAL0032877 Wilcox 13 Mar 2010 England, J. Kevin
2264
UWAL
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
AUA000000296 Russell 16 MAR 1965 MURRELL, J. T.
17
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AUA000000286 Pike 19 MAR 1985 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
223
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
TROY000025919 Chilton 10 Apr 2005 Alvin R. Diamond
15107
TROY
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
AUA000000288 Pike 30 MAR 1968 KRAL, ROBERT
29974
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AMAL00001229 Monroe 26 Mar 2995 D. D. Spaulding
8653
AMAL
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
AUA000000283 Henry 1 APR 1967 KRAL, ROBERT
28127
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AUA000000292 Pike 7 MAR 1988 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
4152
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AUA000000274 Chilton 10 APR 2005 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
15095
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
TROY000011283 Henry 17 Mar 2000 John R. MacDonald
13749
TROY
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
TROY000035034 Bullock 06 Mar 2012 Bailee Dykes
321
TROY
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
AUA000000269 Bullock 20 MAR 1990 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
6740
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
TROY000032056 Bullock 24 Mar 2011 Alvin R. Diamond
21799
TROY
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
AUA000000267 Bullock 20 MAR 1990 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
6732
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AUA000000284 Lee 23 APR 1949 CUNNINGHAM, HUGH B.
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AUA000000302 Tallapoosa 18 MAR 1966 KOELLING, ALFRED C.
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
UNA00068763 Wilcox 13 Mar 2008 Brian R. Keener
4054
UNA
Trillium maculatum Raf.
TROY000011285 Marengo 28 Mar 1981 Robert Kral
66726
TROY
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
AUA000000295 Russell 16 MAR 1965 MURRELL, J. T.
345
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AUA000000304 Wilcox 20 MAR 1985 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
48
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AMAL00019624 Lee 11 Apr 2010 T. Wayne Barger
233
AMAL
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
AUA000000278 Conecuh 20 MAR 1985 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
57
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
TROY000011286 Wilcox 18 Mar 2001 Alvin R. Diamond
12295
TROY
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
UNA00057131 Covington 18 Mar 2000 John R. MacDonald
13763
UNA
Trillium maculatum Raf.
AUA000000297 Russell 2 MAR 1969 FREEMAN, JOHN D.
630
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
UWAL0011078 Bullock 06 Mar 2012 Dykes, Bailee
0321
UWAL
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
UWAL0015510 Lowndes 16 Apr 2014 Keener, Brian R.
8328
UWAL
Trillium maculatum Raf.
AUA000000275 Choctaw 31 MAR 1995 CROUCH, VIRGINIA E.
1338
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AUA000000300 Tallapoosa 27 MAR 1968 FREEMAN, JOHN D.
611
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AUA000000287 Pike 19 MAR 1985 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
14
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
TROY000030071 Bullock 20 Mar 1990 Alvin R. Diamond
6740
TROY
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
AUA000000299 Russell 26 MAR 1972 FREEMAN, JOHN D.
742
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AUA000000285 Macon 10 APR 1974 SKELTON, M.
045
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AUA000000270 Bullock 24 FEB 1989 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
5698
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AUA000000301 Tallapoosa 15 APR 1972 FREEMAN, JOHN D.
772
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
TROY000031490 Tallapoosa 27 Mar 1968 John D. Freeman
611
TROY
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
AUA000000289 Pike 15 MAR 1988 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
4208
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AUA000000271 Bullock 13 MAR 1988 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
4198
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
UWAL0014497 Marengo 12 Mar 2011 England, J. Kevin
2657
UWAL
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
AUA000000291 Pike 7 MAR 1988 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
4153
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
UWAL0017768 Washington 28 Mar 1986 Kral, R.
73178
UWAL
Trillium maculatum Raf.
UNA00057129 Henry 17 Mar 2000 John R. MacDonald
13749
UNA
Trillium maculatum Raf.
AUA000000266 Bullock 24 FEB 1989 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
5699
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AUA000000279 Crenshaw 23 MAR 1969 KRAL, ROBERT
33926
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
TROY000026153 Butler 24 Mar 2009 Alvin R. Diamond
20549
TROY
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
TROY000011284 Lee 30 Mar 2001 Steven J. Threlkeld
1381
TROY
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
AUA000000294 Russell 26 MAR 1972 FREEMAN, JOHN D.
742
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AMAL00014740 Tallapoosa 13 Apr 2006 T. Wayne Barger
44
AMAL
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
AUA000000874 Lee 12 MAR 1988 FREEMAN, JOHN D.
S.N.
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
TROY000030955 Bullock 20 Mar 1990 Alvin R. Diamond
6740
TROY
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
AUA000000268 Bullock 20 MAR 1990 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
6727
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
TROY000039073 Pike 18 Mar 2014 Alvin R. Diamond
24889
TROY
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
AUA000000293 Pike 24 MAR 1989 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
5753
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AUA000000280 Crenshaw 2 APR 1966 KRAL, ROBERT
26112
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
UWAL0002563 Wilcox 13 Mar 2008 Keener, Brian R.
4054
UWAL
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
AUA000024575 Jackson 11 APR 2006 SHERBUNDY, SARAH
6
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AUA000000276 Choctaw 3 MAR 1995 CROUCH, VIRGINIA E.
1308
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AMAL00001226 Bullock 2 Apr 2001 S. J. Threlkeld
1384
AMAL
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
AUA000000273 Bullock 25 APR 1990 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
6842
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AMAL00001227 Covington 18 Mar 2000 John R. MacDonald
13763
AMAL
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
UNA00059145 Lee 26 Mar 2001 S. J. Threlkeld
1359
UNA
Trillium maculatum Raf.
AUA000000290 Pike 15 MAR 1988 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
4217
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AUA000000298 Russell 5 MAR 1975 FOLSOM, JAMES P.
351
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AUA000000282 Dale 1 APR 1967 KRAL, ROBERT
28118
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
AUA000000272 Bullock 13 MAR 1988 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
4203
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
TROY000011282 Covington 10 May 1999 John R. MacDonald
12825b
TROY
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
TROY000026045 Wilcox 13 Mar 2008 Brian R. Keener
4054
TROY
Trillium maculatum Rafinesque
AUA000000303 Wilcox 20 MAR 1986 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
2174
AUA
TRILLIUM MACULATUM RAF.
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