Endodeca serpentaria

Family:ARISTOLOCHIACEAE
Species:Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
Common Name:Virginia Snakeroot; Turpentine Root; Virginia Dutchman's Pipe
Habitat:Hardwood or pine forests, woodland edges, and sandhills.
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:**
Plant Notes:Turpentine Root is a native herbaceous perennial in the Birthwort family (Aristolochiaceae). It can be found throughout Alabama. Turpentine Root occurs in a variety of habitats from rich hardwood forests, to pine forests, to scrub oak woods, and secondary woods. It has an erect stem up to 1 foot in height. The stem is green and either glabrous or pubescent. Leaves are alternate, petiolate, and highly variable in shape. Leaves vary from linear lanceolate to ovate in outline. They have truncate or cordate bases and glabrous or pubescent surfaces. Flowers are located near the base of the stem. The flowers are often produced beneath the leaf litter. Some flowers are cleistogamous (they never open). The flower is composed of a leathery calyx and lacks a corolla. Flowers are bent in a curved pipe shape with a flaring rim. Flower color is purple-brown spotted with lighter purple, green, and white. The fruit is a capsule. Turpentine Root is highly variable in leaf shape, and several species/varieties have been described. Individuals in the same population can vary greatly. The thick cord-like roots of Turpentine Root have a strong odor of pine sap, giving the species its common name. The dried root has been used in herbal medicine for things such as snake bite, rheumatism, worms, toothaches, sore throats, fever, sore noses, and colds, as a tonic. Large doses can be fatal.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native, FACU (NWI)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyARISTOLOCHIACEAE - Birthwort family
Genus Endodeca
Species Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf. - Virginia Snakeroot; Turpentine Root; Virginia Dutchman's Pipe

Citation

Citation Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque, Med. Fl. 1: 62. 1828.
Basionym: Aristolochia serpentaria L. 1753.
Type: USA: VIRGINIA: Without data, Kalm s.n. (lectotype: LINN 1071.7). Lectotypified by Pfeifer, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 53: 128. 1966.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Aristolochia arborescens Aristolochia arborescens Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 960. 1753. VIRGINIA: Without data (lectotype: Plukenet, Phytographia t. 78(1). 1691). Lectotypified by Reveal & C. E. Jarvis, Taxon 58: 978. 2009.
Aristolochia convolvulacea Aristolochia convolvulacea Small, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 24: 335. 1897. GEORGIA: Muscogee Co.: Columbus, s.d., Boykin s.n. (holotype: NY).
Aristolochia officinalis Aristolochia officinalis C. Nees von Esenbeck, Pl. Offic. t. 144. 1828.  
Aristolochia serpentaria var, laxa Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus, var. laxa Duchartre, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(1): 434. 1864. Without data (holotype: LE; isotype: MO?).
Aristolochia serpentaria var. bartonii Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus, var. bartonii Duchartre, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(1): 433. 1864, nom. inadmiss.Endodeca bartonii Klotzsch 1860, nom. illegit.; Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus 1753. 
Aristolochia serpentaria var. hastata Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus, var. hastata (Rafinesque) Duchartre, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(1): 434. 1864.Endodeca hastata Rafinesque 1838; Aristolochia hastata Nuttall 1818, non Kunth 1817 
Aristolochia serpentaria var. nashii Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus, var. nashii (Kearney) Ahles, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 75: 130. 1959.Aristolochia nashii Kearney 1894. 
Endodeca bartonii Endodeca bartonii Klotzsch, Monatsber. Königl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1859: 600. 1860, nom. illegit.Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus 1753. 
Endodeca hastata Endodeca hastata Rafinesque, Fl. Tellur. 4: 99. 1838 ("1836").Aristolochia hastata Nuttall 1818, non Kunth 1817. 
Endodeca polyrrhizos Endodeca polyrrhizos Klotzsch, Monatsber. Königl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1859: 601. 1860, nom. illegit.Endodeca hastata Rafinesque 1838; Aristolochia hastata Nuttall 1818, non Kunth 1817. 
Endodeca serpentaria var. hastata Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque, var. hastata (Rafinesque) C. F. Reed, Phytologia 50: 461. 1982.Endodeca hastata Rafinesque 1838; Aristolochia hastata Nuttall 1818, non Kunth 1817. 
Pistolochia serpentaria Pistolochia serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque, Fl. Tellur. 4: 98. 1838 ("1836").Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus 1753. 
Psophiza undulata Psophiza undulata Rafinesque, Fl. Tellur. 4: 99. 1838 ("1836"). FLORIDA
Aristolochia hastata Aristolochia hastata Nuttall, Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 2: 200. 1818, non Kunth 1817.  
Aristolochia nashii Aristolochia nashii Kearney, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 21: 485. 1894. FLORIDA: Lake Co.: Lake Ella, 1894, Nash 1139 (holotype: US; isotypes: GH, NY, UC).
Aristolochia sagittata    
Aristolochia serpentaria ARISTOLOCHIA SERPENTARIA Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 961. 1753.  

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Barbour, Bibb, Bullock, Butler, Chilton, Choctaw, Clarke, Clay, Cleburne, Coffee, Colbert, Conecuh, Covington, Cullman, Dale, Dallas, DeKalb, Elmore, Etowah, Hale, Henry, Houston, Jackson, Jefferson, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Lee, Limestone, Lowndes, Macon, Madison, Marengo, Marshall, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Pickens, Pike, Russell, Shelby, St. Clair, Sumter, Talladega, Tallapoosa, Winston

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: ALNHS, AMAL, AUA, BRIT, JSU, TROY, UNA, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1998 - 1998

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
ALNHS00007202 Elmore 01 Jul 2021 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#5560
ALNHS
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
BRIT89039 Chilton 20 May 1973 Kral, Robert
50234
BRIT
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
JSU120065 Bibb 13 May 1983 Nixon, Christopher F.
338
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
TROY000001233 Pike 23 Apr 2001 Martin, Brian H.
1041
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
ALNHS00007178 Colbert 11 Jun 2021 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#5557
ALNHS
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
JSU120088 Marshall 11 Jun 1993 Whetstone, R. David
s.n.
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWAL0011777 Autauga 03 May 2013 Keener, Brian R.
7810
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU120076 Etowah 23 Apr 1994 Hodge, Lesley M.
1207
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
TROY000001229 Coffee 01 May 2001 Martin, Brian H.
1045
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
JSU120083 Jackson 22 May 1996 Whetstone, R. David
17680
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
BRIT89037 Choctaw 23 Jun 1980 Causey, Ann S.
2009
BRIT
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
TROY000001228 Coffee 26 Mar 2005 Martin, Brian H.
1215
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
UWAL0037833 Winston 20 May 2017 Spaulding, Daniel D.
14759
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
AMAL00006067 Colbert 22 Aug 2013 Barger, T. Wayne
FH-88
AMAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
AUA_ACC_52784 Bullock 27 May 1991 Diamond, Alvin R.
7398
AUA
Endodeca Serpentaria (L.) Raf.
TROY000028383 Butler 12 Apr 2009 Diamond, Alvin R.
20573
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
UNA00029791 Clarke _ Jun _ Mohr, Charles
s.n.
UNA
Aristolochia serpentaria L.
AUA_ACC_46137 Conecuh 11 Jul 1987 Diamond, Alvin R.
3436
AUA
Endodeca Serpentaria (L.) Raf.
AUA_ACC_61350 Choctaw 4 May 1995 Crouch, Virginia E.
1363
AUA
Endodeca Serpentaria (L.) Raf.
BRIT89029 Houston 05 May 1993 MacDonald, John R.
5977
BRIT
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
TROY000034451 Monroe 10 Apr 2010 Diamond, Alvin R.
21241a
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
UWAL0051425 Winston 29 Jun 1971 Dean, Blanche E.
329-2
UWAL
Aristolochia serpentaria
JSU120089 Marshall 23 Apr 1993 Spaulding, Daniel D.
3495
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWAL0050250 Marshall 22 May 2020 Finzel, Brian
s.n.
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU120082 Jackson 29 Jun 1996 Ballard, J. Mark
6205
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWAL0009899 Macon 16 Jun 2010 Birkhead, Roger
s.n.
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
BRIT89033 DeKalb 09 Aug 1973 Kral, Robert
51030
BRIT
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
JSU120064 Baldwin 9 Jul 2000 Spaulding, Daniel D.
10773
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UNA00064780 Sumter 20 Apr 2006 Keener, Brian R.
2838
UNA
Aristolochia serpentaria L.
JSU120068 Bibb 13 May 1983 Whetstone, R. David
13408
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
AMAL00005845 Madison 06 Sep 1997 Threlkeld, Steven J.
1195
AMAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
ALNHS00002155 Houston 18 Jun 2013 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#1053
ALNHS
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
JSU120081 Jackson 27 Jun 1998 Brodeur, Kristin R.
941
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU120079 Etowah 23 May 1984 Whetstone, R. David
14024
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
AMAL00016252 Lauderdale 11 May 2009 Holt, Brian D.
SC-53
AMAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
UNA00045930 Henry 28 May 1998 MacDonald, John R.
11300
UNA
Aristolochia serpentaria L.
JSU120075 DeKalb 2 Aug 1976 Whetstone, R. David
8834
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWAL0017439 Marengo 20 Apr 2013 England, J. Kevin
4156
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
AUA_ACC_49190 Pike 3 May 1988 Diamond, Alvin R.
4630
AUA
Endodeca Serpentaria (L.) Raf.
AUA_ACC_52193 Houston 6 Jun 1992 Diamond, Alvin R.
8321
AUA
Endodeca Serpentaria (L.) Raf.
BRIT89043 Montgomery 07 Oct 1974 Kral, Robert
54472
BRIT
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
JSU120074 DeKalb 2 May 1986 Lawler, Carol L.
235
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
AUA_ACC_51575 Dale 19 Jul 1989 Diamond, Alvin R.
5974
AUA
Endodeca Serpentaria (L.) Raf.
JSU120073 DeKalb 15 May 1996 Whetstone, R. David
17526
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
AUA_ACC_2048 Lee May 1921 Anonymous
AUA
Endodeca Serpentaria (L.) Raf.
JSU120072 DeKalb 9 Jun 1976 Whetstone, R. David
8446
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
AUA_ACC_49796 Dallas 23 Apr 1989 Diamond, Alvin R.
5869
AUA
Endodeca Serpentaria (L.) Raf.
ALNHS00007280 Morgan 19 Oct 2021 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#5670
ALNHS
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
AUA_ACC_62012 Choctaw 22 Jun 1994 Crouch, Virginia E.
1067
AUA
Endodeca Serpentaria (L.) Raf.
BRIT89038 Choctaw 30 Jun 1980 Kral, Robert
65560
BRIT
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
TROY000014143 Hale 09 May 2003 Diamond, Alvin R.
13896
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
UWAL0001003 Marengo 22 Apr 2010 Keener, Brian R.
5827
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
UWAL0002952 Lowndes 20 May 2010 Keener, Brian R.
6006
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
JSU120092 Talladega 22 Apr 1995 Ballard, J. Mark
5462
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
AUA000035912 Montgomery 27 Mar 2018 Birkhead, Roger
AUA
Endodeca Serpentaria (L.) Raf.
BRIT89030 Henry 08 May 1996 Kral, Robert
57956
BRIT
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
JSU120087 Marshall 30 May 1993 Spaulding, Daniel D.
4061
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
AUA_ACC_63574 Lee 1 Jul 2003 Loewenstein, Nancy J.
AUA
Endodeca Serpentaria (L.) Raf.
AUA000031639 Covington 6 May 2011 Hansen, Curtis J.
5027
AUA
Endodeca Serpentaria (L.) Raf.
TROY000001231 Conecuh 11 May 2002 Diamond, Alvin R.
13155
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
TROY000001232 Pike 30 Jun 2002 Diamond, Alvin R.
13439
TROY
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWAL0015504 Lowndes 16 Apr 2014 Keener, Brian R.
8326
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
JSU120080 Etowah 10 Aug 1974 Atkinson, Tim A.
574
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWAL0000336 Sumter 26 Apr 1998 Keener, Brian R.
727
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
BRIT89031 Henry 28 May 1998 MacDonald, John R.
11300
BRIT
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
TROY000014457 Monroe 26 Apr 2008 Keener, Brian R.
4250
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
BRIT89028 Jackson 07 Jul 1974 DiPietro, Teresa
492
BRIT
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
JSU120085 Lauderdale 20 Jul 1996 Whetstone, R. David
18235
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWAL0037361 Bullock 01 May 2017 Soehren, Eric C.
484
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
JSU120071 Cleburne 18 Jul 1995 Hruska, Susan E.
775
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWAL0009730 Sumter 11 Mar 2012 Keener, Brian R.
6938
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
ALNHS00003989 Houston 20 May 2016 Barger, T. Wayne
DTP-269
ALNHS
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
JSU120091 Shelby 4 Apr 1993 Whetstone, R. David
16287
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
BRIT89040 Autauga 01 Jun 1997 Naczi, Robert F.C.
6393
BRIT
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
ALNHS00006598 St. Clair 04 Sep 2019 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#4861
ALNHS
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
BRIT89027 Jackson 21 Jun 1974 Kral, Robert
53212
BRIT
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
JSU120090 Marshall 13 Jun 1976 Whetstone, R. David
8466
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
AMAL00020012 Monroe 06 Apr 2011 Barger, T. Wayne
RH-57
AMAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
ALNHS00000477 Dallas 15 Apr 2010 Barger, T. Wayne
OC-50
ALNHS
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
TROY000039301 Conecuh 15 Jun 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
25202
TROY
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWAL0044766 Jackson 02 Jun 2018 England, J. Kevin
9189
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU120077 Etowah 7 May 1995 Hodge, Lesley M.
4220
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
AMAL00014619 Henry 19 Apr 2005 Kral, Robert
96139
AMAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
TROY000038016 Bullock 09 May 2013 Dykes, Bailee
1614
TROY
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
BRIT89032 Hale 09 May 2003 Diamond, Alvin R.
13896
BRIT
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
TROY000035694 Barbour 01 Jun 2012 Minton, Eric W.
23
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
UNA00048651 Mobile _ May 1878 Mohr, Charles
s.n.
UNA
Aristolochia serpentaria L.
JSU120093 Talladega 9 Sep 1994 Ballard, J. Mark
4935
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
AMAL00011437 Tallapoosa 27 Apr 2006 Barger, T. Wayne
179
AMAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
JSU120086 Lawrence 17 Sep 1994 Spaulding, Daniel D.
6377
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
BRIT89025 Lowndes 23 May 1993 Kral, Robert
82474
BRIT
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
JSU120066 Bibb 13 May 1983 Whetstone, R. David
13393
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
AMAL00015006 Dallas 23 May 2007 Spaulding, Daniel D.
12616
AMAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
ALNHS00007179 Russell 15 Jun 2021 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#5549
ALNHS
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
TROY000049631 Autauga 17 Apr 2018 Parker, Matthew R.
1594
TROY
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWAL0044975 Bullock 21 Sep 2018 Horne, Howard E.
4636
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU120067 Bibb 18 May 1984 Whetstone, R. David
13931
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWAL0012981 Butler 07 May 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24029
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
AUA_ACC_70193 Macon 16 Jun 2010 Birkhead, Roger
AUA
Endodeca Serpentaria (L.) Raf.
BRIT89036 Conecuh 11 May 2002 Diamond, Alvin R.
13155
BRIT
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_51215 Covington 5 May 1990 Diamond, Alvin R.
6897
AUA
Endodeca Serpentaria (L.) Raf.
BRIT89034 Cullman 07 May 2000 Kral, Robert
89542A
BRIT
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
JSU120084 Jefferson 28 May 1984 Barber, J. Patrick
654
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
AMAL00001718 Chilton 13 Apr 2008 Spaulding, Daniel D.
12834
AMAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
BRIT89026 Limestone 19 May 1995 Kral, Robert
84722
BRIT
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
BRIT89035 Conecuh 09 May 2000 Kral, Robert
89641B
BRIT
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
TROY000001230 Coffee 04 Sep 2000 Martin, Brian H.
951
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
TROY000045330 Marengo 20 Apr 2013 England, J. Kevin
4156
TROY
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU120078 Etowah 14 Jun 1976 Atkinson, Tim A.
1686
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWAL0000335 Monroe 26 Apr 2008 Keener, Brian R.
4250
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
ALNHS00007266 Montgomery 07 Jul 2021 Birkhead, Roger
s.n.
ALNHS
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
JSU120070 Clay 14 Jun 1993 Ballard, J. Mark
2799
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
TROY000020568 Henry 19 Apr 2005 Kral, Robert
96139
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
BRIT89024 Marshall 28 Jul 1974 Golden, Michael
s.n.
BRIT
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
JSU120069 Bibb 22 Jul 1982 Whetstone, R. David
11546
JSU
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
BRIT89042 Pickens 15 May 1997 Bryson, Charles T.
15852
BRIT
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
TROY000028111 Butler 20 May 2009 Diamond, Alvin R.
20737
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
UWAL0033678 Madison 21 May 2016 Keener, Brian R.
9614
UWAL
Endodeca serpentaria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
TROY000027706 Montgomery 14 May 2009 Diamond, Alvin R.
20687
TROY
Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus
ALNHS00004778 Madison 08 Jun 2017 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#3157
ALNHS
Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
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