Spirodela polyrhiza

Family:ARACEAE
Species:Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid.
Common Name:Common Duckmeat; Greater Duckweed
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Annual
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:SPPO
Plant Notes:Common Duckmeat is a native free-floating aquatic herbaceous perennial in the Arum family (ARACEAE). It can be found throughout Alabama. Common Duckmeat occurs on the surface of ponds and lakes, in sloughs and canals, in beaver ponds, and in ponded or slow moving streams. It often occurs inter-mixed with Duckweeds (Lemna species), and with the floating aquatic Mosquito Fern (Azolla caroliniana Willdenow). Common Duckmeat consists of 1 or more connected floating leaf-stems known as fronds. The frond is orbicular to obovate in outline, glabrous, and with entire margins. The frond is dark green above with 7-21 veins and often a conspicuous red spot. The frond is red on the lower surface with 7-21 roots. Reproduction is mainly asexual and flowers are much reduced and rarely produced. The flowers occur in a reproductive pouch on the frond. Flowers lack petals and sepals and consist of 2 stamens and 1 ovary. During the autumn a specialized frond known as a turion is produced. It is very dense and sinks to the bottom of the water body where it overwinters. The floating fronds are killed by low temperatures. Common Duckmeat can be very abundant at a particular locality in one year and then be completely absent for several years. Under ideal growing conditions plants can rapidly cover the entire water surface. Spirodela differs from Lemna species by having more than 1 root per frond. Common Duckmeat is eaten by many species of wildlife such as water fowl and fish. It has been investigated for use as a biofuel, for bioremediation of over nitrified waters, and as a food for domestic livestock and humans.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:When Linnaeus created the basionym for this species, he used the epithet "polyrhiza".  Later, Schleiden transferred the taxon to Spirodela, but he erroneously added an additional "r" to the epithet as "polyrrhiza"--a mistake since perpetuated in numerous taxonomic works.  The spelling error is permissibly correctable by the CODE back to the original spelling, as treated here.--B.R. Keener
Status:Native, OBL (NWI)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyARACEAE - Arum family
Genus Spirodela
Species Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. - Common Duckmeat; Greater Duckweed

Citation

Citation Spirodela polyrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden, Linnaea 13(4): 392. 1839.
Basionym: Lemna polyrhiza L. 1753.
Type: ITALY: Without data (lectotype: Micheli, Nov. Gen. Sp. t. 11(Lenticularia fig. 1). 1729). Lectotypified by Iamonico & Iberite, Taxon 63: 1314-1315. 2014.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Lemna major Lemna major C. A. Meyer ex Griffith, Not. Pl. Asiat. 3: 216. 1851.  
Lemna maxima Lemna maxima Blatter & Hallberg, J. Indian Bot. 2: 49. 1921.  
Lemna orbicularis Lemna orbicularis Kitaibal ex Schultes, Oesterr. Fl., ed. 2. 1: 64. 1814.  
Lemna orbiculata Lemna orbiculata Roxburgh, Fl. Ind., ed. 1832. 3: 565. 1832. INDIA
Lemna polyrhiza Lemna polyrhiza Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 970. 1753. CANADA: British Columbia: Vancouver Island, s.d., Macoun 88277 (neotype: US; isoneotypes: C, GH, NY). Neotypified by Proctor, in Acevedo-Rodríguez & M. T. Strong, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 52: 55. 2005.
Lemna thermalis Lemna thermalis Palisot de Beauvois, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts 82: 102 1816.  
Lenticula polyrhiza Lenticula polyrhiza (Linnaeus) Lamarck, Fl. Franc. 2: 189. 1779 ("1778").Lemna polyrhiza Linnaeus 1753. 
Spirodela atropurpurea Spirodela atropurpurea Montandon, in Friche-Joset & Montandon, Syn. Fl. Jura, ed. 2. 309. 1868.  
Spirodela maxima Spirodela maxima (Blatter & Hallberg) McCann, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 43: 158. 1942.Lemna maximaq Blatter & Hallberg 1921. 
Telmatophace orbicularis Telmatophace orbicularis (Kitaibal ex Schultes) Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv. 635. 1866.Lemna orbicularis Kitaibal ex Schultes 1814. 
Telmatophace polyrhiza Telmatophace polyrhiza (Linnaeus) Godron, Fl. Lorraine 3: 18. 1844.Lemna polyrhiza Linnaeus 1753. 

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Bibb, Bullock, Butler, Calhoun, Cherokee, Choctaw, Clarke, Coffee, Colbert, Conecuh, Crenshaw, Cullman, Dallas, Elmore, Etowah, Greene, Hale, Houston, Jackson, Jefferson, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Limestone, Lowndes, Madison, Marengo, Marshall, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Shelby, Sumter, Tallapoosa, Washington, Wilcox

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: ALNHS, AMAL, AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1962 - 1979

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
AUA000039485 Morgan 15 Aug 2015 England, J. Kevin
5629
AUA
Spirodela Polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
USAM000008032 Baldwin 20 Oct 1975 LeLong, Michel G.
8881
USAM
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UNA00036444 Limestone 01 Aug 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
719
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
JSU101352 Jackson 13 Aug 1998 Brodeur, Kristin R.
1208
JSU
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UWAL0046220 Autauga 14 Dec 2017 Parker, Matthew R.
1481
UWAL
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UWAL0047529 Jefferson 02 Jun 2018 Spaulding, Daniel D.
15344b
UWAL
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
TROY000011077 Coffee 15 Jan 2001 Martin, Brian H.
1018
TROY
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UWAL0019988 Morgan 15 Aug 2015 England, J. Kevin
5629
UWAL
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
SAMF0000271 Etowah 07 Aug 1982 Davenport, Lawrence J.
2249
SAMF
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UNA00036470 Choctaw 26 Jul 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
644
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UNA00036478 Marengo 15 Jun 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
434
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UNA00071983 Jefferson 23 Jun 2016 Davenport, L.J.
6417
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
AUA000033884 Choctaw 20 Apr 1996 Crouch, Virginia E.
1541
AUA
Spirodela Polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
SAMF0000270 Shelby 02 Jul 1988 Davenport, Lawrence J.
2574
SAMF
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UNA00065174 Shelby 27 May 1988 Davenport, Lawrence J.
2562
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
JSU101353 Jackson 13 Aug 1998 Brodeur, Kristin R.
1184
JSU
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UWAL0049244 Bullock 18 Jun 2016 Horne, Howard E.
3313
UWAL
Spirodela polyrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
AUA000033886 Conecuh 24 Dec 1986 Diamond, Alvin R.
2976
AUA
Spirodela Polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
JSU101351 Calhoun 02 Aug 1986 Lawler, Carol L.
918
JSU
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
AUA000033889 Montgomery 27 Apr 1951 Kennamer, Earl E.
AUA
Spirodela Polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UWAL0004648 Monroe 20 Sep 2007 Diamond, Alvin R.
18283
UWAL
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleiden
UNA00036483 Wilcox 14 Jun 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
422
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UNA00036480 Jackson 07 Jul 1978 Haynes, Robert R.
6605
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
TROY000011078 Crenshaw 20 Jun 2004 Diamond, Alvin R.
14903
TROY
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UNA00036465 Houston 11 Jul 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
529
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
AUA000033885 Clarke 5 Aug 2010 Davenport, L.J.
4433
AUA
Spirodela Polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UWAL0039452 Colbert 26 Sep 2013 Webb, David H.
8096
UWAL
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Scheid.
SAMF0000280 Clarke 05 Aug 2010 Davenport, Lawrence J.
4433
SAMF
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UWAL0047493 Cullman 26 Jun 2018 Spaulding, Daniel D.
15421
UWAL
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UWAL0051770 Lawrence 19 Aug 2018 Spaulding, Daniel D.
15596
UWAL
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UNA00036424 Greene 25 May 1978 Haynes, Robert R.
6484
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UWAL0039485 Lauderdale 26 Sep 2013 Webb, David H.
8102
UWAL
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Scheid.
SAMF0000275 Shelby 27 May 1988 Davenport, Lawrence J.
2562
SAMF
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UNA00036485 Cherokee 07 Jul 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
460
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UNA00036495 Autauga 06 Jun 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
344
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
ALNHS00004111 Bullock 11 Oct 2016 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#2451
ALNHS
Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid.
USAM000008034 Monroe 14 Jun 1978 Davenport, Lawrence.J.
402
USAM
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UNA00036500 Madison 01 Aug 1978 Haynes, Robert R.
6824
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UWAL0030272 Jackson 08 Sep 2015 Davenport, L.J.
5952
UWAL
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleiden
JSU101354 Jackson 12 Jul 1999 Brodeur, Kristin R.
2083
JSU
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UWAL0012124 Washington 21 Jun 2013 Davenport, L.J.
5491
UWAL
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
TROY000011076 Butler 06 Sep 2007 Diamond, Alvin R.
18052
TROY
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
JSU101358 Madison 28 May 1973 Landers, Kenneth E.
RDW-1363
JSU
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
TROY000011079 Monroe 20 Sep 2007 Diamond, Alvin R.
18283
TROY
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UWAL0053032 Jefferson 23 Jun 2016 Davenport, L.J.
6417
UWAL
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleiden
AUA000034340 Montgomery 3 Aug 1959 Akedin, Zaynul
AUA
Spirodela Polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UNA00036499 Monroe 14 Jun 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
417
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UNA00036464 Choctaw 10 Jul 1979 Haynes, Robert R.
7435
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
AUA000033883 Bullock 11 Jul 1996 Diamond, Alvin R.
10410
AUA
Spirodela Polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
SAMF0006586 Hale 17 Jun 2016 Davenport, Lawrence J.
6346
SAMF
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UWAL0049625 Colbert 17 Oct 2019 Webb, David H.
8848
UWAL
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
TROY000029521 Montgomery 20 Oct 2009 Diamond, Alvin R.
21079
TROY
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UNA00036502 Madison 04 Jun 1979 Wiersema, John H.
789
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
SAMF0001729 Washington 21 Jun 2013 Davenport, Lawrence J.
5491
SAMF
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UNA00059335 Jackson 29 Jun 2002 Spaulding, Daniel D.
11429
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UNA00036469 Greene 28 Sep 1962 Thomas, Joab L.
701
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UNA00036521 Greene 25 May 1978 Haynes, Robert R.
6486
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UNA00064347 Crenshaw 20 Jun 2004 Diamond, Alvin R.
14903
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
USAM000008031 Baldwin 06 Aug 1976 LeLong, Michel G.
9365
USAM
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UNA00036449 Marshall 07 Jul 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
484
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UNA00036474 Lowndes 06 Jun 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
355
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
USAM000008030 Choctaw 24 Aug 1978 Burkhalter, James R.
6087
USAM
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UNA00036531 Lauderdale 01 Aug 1978 Haynes, Robert R.
6787
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UWAL0014935 Bullock 07 Jun 2012 Dykes, Bailee
1025
UWAL
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UWAL0001898 Clarke 05 Aug 2010 Davenport, L.J.
4433
UWAL
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleiden
JSU101359 Marshall 25 Jun 1992 Spaulding, Daniel D.
2114
JSU
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
SAMF0007503 Jefferson 02 Jun 2018 Spaulding, Daniel D.
15,344b
SAMF
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
JSU101357 Madison 28 May 1973 Landers, Kenneth E.
RDW-1363
JSU
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
JSU101355 Limestone 26 May 1996 Whetstone, R. David
17809
JSU
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UNA00036414 Clarke 19 Nov 1977 Haynes, Robert R.
6405
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
ALNHS00004111 Bullock 11 Oct 2016 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#2451
ALNHS
Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid.
TROY000048345 Autauga 14 Dec 2017 Parker, Matthew R.
1481
TROY
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UNA00036489 Clarke 14 Jun 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
406
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UNA00036404 Shelby 24 Sep 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
901
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
SAMF0000279 Etowah 11 Mar 1986 Davenport, Lawrence J.
2439
SAMF
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UWAL0039429 Jackson 19 Sep 2018 Webb, David H.
8616
UWAL
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Scheid.
TROY000038356 Bullock 07 Jun 2012 Dykes, Bailee
1025
TROY
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UWAL0004650 Sumter 21 Jun 1971 Boyd, Shirley
s.n.
UWAL
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleiden
USAM000008033 Baldwin 30 Jul 1976 LeLong, Michel G.
9335
USAM
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
SAMF0007393 Jefferson 23 Jun 2016 Davenport, L.J.
6417
SAMF
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
JSU101356 Madison 28 May 1973 Landers, Kenneth E.
RDW-1363
JSU
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UNA00036475 Greene 25 May 1978 Haynes, Robert R.
6504
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UNA00036517 Montgomery _ Oct _ Mohr, Charles
s.n.
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
JSU101361 Marshall 20 Aug 1992 Spaulding, Daniel D.
2678
JSU
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UNA00036512 Elmore 11 Jun 1979 Davenport, Lawrence J.
1104
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UNA00036409 Montgomery 24 Sep 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
868
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UWAL0004649 Clarke 11 Jul 1984 Field Botany (BY 410)
s.n.
UWAL
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleiden
JSU101360 Marshall 09 Aug 1992 Spaulding, Daniel D.
2634
JSU
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UNA00036507 Washington 06 Aug 1979 Davenport, Lawrence J.
1442
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
AMAL00013099 Shelby 27 May 1988 Davenport, Lawrence J.
2562
AMAL
Spirodela polyrriza (L.) Schleiden
UWAL0051676 Tallapoosa 08 Jul 2018 Spaulding, Daniel D.
15437a
UWAL
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UWAL0051778 Lawrence 19 Aug 2018 Spaulding, Daniel D.
15583
UWAL
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UNA00065176 Shelby 02 Jul 1988 Davenport, Lawrence J.
2574
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
SAMF0003169 Jackson 08 Sep 2015 Davenport, Lawrence J.
5952
SAMF
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleiden
SAMF0000274 Bibb 30 Jun 2005 Davenport, Lawrence J.
3270
SAMF
Spirodela polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Schleiden
UNA00024142 Lauderdale 31 Jul 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
696a
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UNA00036484 Dallas 05 Jun 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
340
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
UNA00073813 Jackson 8 Sep 2015 Davenport, L.J.
5952
UNA
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
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