Rhapidophyllum hystrix

Family:ARECACEAE
Species:Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) H. Wendl. & Drude
Common Name:Needle Palm
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Shrub
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:RHHY
Plant Notes:Needle Palm is a native perennial member of the Palm family (Arecaceae). It can be found in the southern half of Alabama. Needle Palm occurs on high floodplains and terraces along rivers and streams, on moist hardwood slopes, in ravines, and around caves. Needle Palm is a slow growing species with a short trunk. The trunk may reach a height of 6-8 feet in old individuals. Several individuals often grow from a single trunk. The trunk in covered in needle-like spines that originate between the leaves. The spines are up to 10 inches in length with a sharp tip. The spines protect the new leaves and flowers. Needle Palm is a “fan palm” with broad leaves on a long petiole that are up to six feet long. The leaves are divided into segments of various widths. Leaves are deep green above and silvery white below. The leaves are thick and evergreen, and persist for 2-3 years or longer. Needle Palm is dioecious (with separate male and female plants). The flowers are produced in a short inflorescence. A spathe (bract) encloses the developing inflorescence. The inflorescence is very short and is often hidden by fallen leaves and old fronds. The flowers are yellowish green, sometimes tinged with purple. The fruit is a brown or reddish drupe with a wooly outer covering. Needle Palm is listed as an S2/S3 species in Alabama (typically 6 to 100 occurrences, few remaining individuals, acres, or miles of stream, or factors demonstrably making it very vulnerable in the state), and globally as a G4 species (imperiled globally because of rarity (6 - 20 occurrences, or few remaining acres, or miles of stream) or very vulnerable to extinction throughout its range because of other factors). Needle Palm is a very cold hard species, and many thousands of plants were dug from Alabama and shipped north as “parlor palms”. Needle Palm is readily available in the nursery trade. It prefers moist, well-draining soils that are rich in organic matter. It will grow best in partial shade, but will adapt to
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native, FACW (NWI), S2S3 (State Rank), G4 (Global Rank)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyARECACEAE - Palm family
Genus Rhapidophyllum
Species Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) H. Wendl. & Drude - Needle Palm

Citation

Citation RHAPIDOPHYLLUM HYSTRIX (Pursh) H. Wendland & Drude ex Drude, Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 34: 803. 1876.
Basionym: Chamaerops hystrix Pursh 1814.
Type: GEORGIA: Chatham Co.: Near Savannah, s.d., Fraser s.n. (holotype: ?).

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Chamaerops hystrix Chamaerops hystrix Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 1: 240. 1814, as 'Hystris'. GEORGIA: Chatham Co.: Near Savannah, s.d., Fraser s.n. (holotype: ?).
Sabal hystrix Sabal hystrix (Pursh) Nuttall, Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 1: 230. 1818.Chamaerops hystris Pursh 1814. 

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Barbour, Butler, Choctaw, Clarke, Coffee, Conecuh, Covington, Dale, Escambia, Geneva, Henry, Houston, Lee, Lowndes, Macon, Monroe, Pike, Russell

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AMAL, AUA, JSU, NY, SAMF, TROY, UNA, UWAL, UWFP

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
35AUA_ACC Lee 5 JUL 1949 CUNNINGHAM, HUGH B.
AUA
RHAPIDOPHYLLUM HYSTRIX (PURSH) H. WENDL. & DRUDE EX DRUDE
AMAL00011562 Covington 23 Jul 1982 Douglas T. McGinity
s.n.
AMAL
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) Wendl. & Drude
UWAL0017596 Houston 26 Mar 2015 Diamond, Alvin R.
26044
UWAL
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) Endlicher & Drude
TROY000009923 Conecuh 11 May 2002 Alvin R. Diamond
13156
TROY
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) Endlicher & Drude
19811AUA_ACC Autauga 7 SEP 1970 MOORE, HAROLD D.
842
AUA
RHAPIDOPHYLLUM HYSTRIX (PURSH) H. WENDL. & DRUDE EX DRUDE
UNA00036317 Clarke 15 Apr 1980 Robert R. Haynes
7716
UNA
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) H. Wendl. & Drude ex Drude
51777AUA_ACC Dale 19 JUL 1989 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
5947
AUA
RHAPIDOPHYLLUM HYSTRIX (PURSH) H. WENDL. & DRUDE EX DRUDE
UWAL0030968 Henry 14 Oct 1973 Kral, R.
52423
UWAL
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) H.Wendl. & Drude ex Drude
TROY000009924 Covington 23 Jul 1982 Douglas T. McGinty
s.n.
TROY
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) Endlicher & Drude
57582AUA_ACC Houston 11 JAN 1993 MACDONALD, JOHN R.
5814
AUA
RHAPIDOPHYLLUM HYSTRIX (PURSH) H. WENDL. & DRUDE EX DRUDE
55357AUA_ACC Pike 13 MAY 1995 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
9552
AUA
RHAPIDOPHYLLUM HYSTRIX (PURSH) H. WENDL. & DRUDE EX DRUDE
TROY000009921 Butler 08 Oct 2007 Alvin R. Diamond
18527
TROY
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) Endlicher & Drude
35244AUA_ACC Russell 16 JUL 1970 FREEMAN, JOHN D.
AUA
RHAPIDOPHYLLUM HYSTRIX (PURSH) H. WENDL. & DRUDE EX DRUDE
TROY000009925 Pike 16 May 2002 Alvin R. Diamond
13189
TROY
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) Endlicher & Drude
19720AUA_ACC Choctaw 8 SEP 1970 MOORE, HAROLD D.
968
AUA
RHAPIDOPHYLLUM HYSTRIX (PURSH) H. WENDL. & DRUDE EX DRUDE
43993AUA_ACC Conecuh 17 MAR 1986 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
2123
AUA
RHAPIDOPHYLLUM HYSTRIX (PURSH) H. WENDL. & DRUDE EX DRUDE
TROY000009922 Coffee 08 Dec 1999 Brian H. Martin
405
TROY
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) Endlicher & Drude
TROY000044137 Geneva 08 Sep 2016 Cameron Byrd
81
TROY
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) H. Wendl. & Drude
30547AUA_ACC Monroe 16 SEP 1976 FREEMAN, JOHN D.
S.N.
AUA
RHAPIDOPHYLLUM HYSTRIX (PURSH) H. WENDL. & DRUDE EX DRUDE
UWAL0003493 Covington 23 Jul 1982 McGinty, Douglas T.
s.n.
UWAL
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) Wendl. & Drude
UWAL0039884 Geneva 08 Sep 2016 Byrd, Cameron
81
UWAL
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) H. Wendl. & Drude
TROY000038900 Geneva 06 Feb 2014 Alvin R. Diamond
24773
TROY
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) Endlicher & Drude
51855AUA_ACC Henry 9 JAN 1990 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
7204
AUA
RHAPIDOPHYLLUM HYSTRIX (PURSH) H. WENDL. & DRUDE EX DRUDE
SAMF0000933 Henry 19 May 1986 Davenport, L. J.
2463
SAMF
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) Endlicher & Drude
NY02319498 Autauga 16 Apr 1980 Robert R. Haynes
7747
NY
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) H.Wendl. & Drude
19132AUA_ACC Macon 29 JUN 1970 MOORE, HAROLD D.
178
AUA
RHAPIDOPHYLLUM HYSTRIX (PURSH) H. WENDL. & DRUDE EX DRUDE
AMAL00011166 Russell 07 May 1979 Becky Banker
s.n.
AMAL
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) Wendl. & Drude
TROY000039510 Macon 19 Jul 2012 Robert Pullen
182
TROY
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) Endlicher & Drude
UWAL0016042 Geneva 06 Feb 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
24773
UWAL
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) Endlicher & Drude
TROY000033342 Barbour 17 Sep 2011 Derek Morrison
97
TROY
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) Endlicher & Drude
UWAL0039353 Autauga 15 Sep 2016 Parker, Matthew R.
88
UWAL
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) Endlicher and Drude
UNA00036302 Lee 30 Apr 1980 L. J. Davenport
1825
UNA
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) H. Wendl. & Drude ex Drude
JSU104802 Lee 12 Mar 1968 Dickie Brown
s.n.
JSU
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) Endlicher & Drude
50700AUA_ACC Escambia 6 JUN 1990 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
6951
AUA
RHAPIDOPHYLLUM HYSTRIX (PURSH) H. WENDL. & DRUDE EX DRUDE
AMAL00011571 Macon 30 Jun 1977 Pendergrass
7
AMAL
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) Wendl. & Drude
NY02319495 Clarke 15 Apr 1980 Robert R. Haynes
7716
NY
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) H.Wendl. & Drude
20438AUA_ACC Henry 29 JUL 1970 MOORE, HAROLD D.
457
AUA
RHAPIDOPHYLLUM HYSTRIX (PURSH) H. WENDL. & DRUDE EX DRUDE
UNA00036327 Conecuh 21 Feb 1987 Frank D. Bowers
12628
UNA
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) H. Wendl. & Drude ex Drude
UNA00036307 Autauga 16 Apr 1980 Robert R. Haynes
7747
UNA
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) H. Wendl. & Drude ex Drude
51679AUA_ACC Houston 6 FEB 1991 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
7213
AUA
RHAPIDOPHYLLUM HYSTRIX (PURSH) H. WENDL. & DRUDE EX DRUDE
67663AUA_ACC Covington 28 FEB 2008 HANSEN, CURTIS J.
3249
AUA
RHAPIDOPHYLLUM HYSTRIX (PURSH) H. WENDL. & DRUDE EX DRUDE
TROY000042294 Houston 26 Mar 2015 Alvin R. Diamond
26048
TROY
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) Endlicher & Drude
35797AUA_ACC Lowndes 10 SEP 1970 MOORE, HAROLD D.
1155
AUA
RHAPIDOPHYLLUM HYSTRIX (PURSH) H. WENDL. & DRUDE EX DRUDE
UWFP018975 Baldwin 25 May 1997 James R. Burkhalter
15354
UWFP
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) H. Wendl. & Drude
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