Verbena carnea

Family:VERBENACEAE
Species:Verbena carnea Medik.
Common Name:Carolina Vervain; Carolina False Vervain
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:**
Plant Notes:Carolina Vervain is a native herbaceous perennial in the Verbena family (Verbenaceae). It can be found in the southern two thirds of Alabama. Carolina Vervain grows in sand hills, in scrub oak woods, in dry long leaf pine woods, and in dry mixed pine/hardwood forests. Carolina Vervain is a perennial from a tap root. One or more upright stems, 1-3 feet in height, are produced by each rootstock. Stems are square, green in color and often purple at the base. The stems are pubescent and glandular, especially towards the top. Leaves are opposite, sessile, pubescent, elliptic to oblong in outline, and serrate. The leaves are reduced in size up the stem. Flowers are produced in terminal spikes. Plants may produce from 1-5 spikes. The flowers are often widely spaced on the inflorescence. They may be solitary, in opposite pairs, or whorled, all on the same inflorescence. Flowers are pink to pale lavender in color. Only a few flowers are open at any one time, and flowering progresses from the bottom to the top of the spikes. The corolla is five lobed. The fruit is a schizocarp with tightly adhering mericarps. Carolina Vervain is not especially showy and is not usually available from wildflower nurseries.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyVERBENACEAE - Verbena family
Genus Verbena
Species Verbena carnea Medik. - Carolina Vervain; Carolina False Vervain

Citation

Citation Verbena carnea Medik., Bot. Beob. 1783 1783: 131. 1784.
Basionym: **
Type: FLORIDA: Jefferson Co.: 1.5 mi. N of Wacissa, 5 May 1960, Godfrey 59506 (neotype: NCU; isoneotypes: SMU, VDB). Neotypified by G. L. Nesom, Phytoneuron 2010(15): 2. 2010.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Phryma caroliniensis Phryma caroliniensis Walter, Fl. Carol. 166. 1788. SOUTH CAROLINA:
Styleurodon carolinianum Styleurodon carolinianum Rafinesque, Fl. Tellur. 2: 104. 1837 ("1836"), nom. illegit.Phryma caroliniensis Walter 1788. 
Stylodon scabrum Stylodon scabrum Rafinesque, Neogenyton 2. 1825, nom. illegit.Phryma caroliniensis Walter 1788. 
Stylodon carolinensis Stylodon caroliniense (Walter) Small, Man. S.E. Fl. 1135, 1508. 1933.Phryma caroliniensis Walter 1788. 
Verbena caroliniensis Verbena caroliniensis (Walter) J. F. Gmelin ex Small, Fl. S.E. U.S. 1009. 1903.Phryma caroliniensis Walter 1788. 
Verbena carnea Verbena carnea Medikus, Bot. Beob. 1783. 131. 1784. FLORIDA: Jefferson Co.: 1.5 mi. N of Wacissa, 5 May 1960, Godfrey 59506 (neotype: NCU; isoneotypes: SMU, VDB). Neotypified by G. L. Nesom, Phytoneuron 2010(15): 2. 2010.

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Bibb, Bullock, Chambers, Chilton, Clarke, Covington, Crenshaw, Escambia, Geneva, Hale, Henry, Houston, Lee, Macon, Mobile, Pike, Russell, Sumter, Tuscaloosa

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: ALNHS, AUA, JSU, TROY, UNA, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1952 - 1998

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
AUA_ACC_41515 Macon 21 May 1972 Parker, G.W.
152
AUA
Stylodon Carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
TROY000009594 Geneva 20 May 2007 Diamond, Alvin R.
17619
TROY
Stylodon carneus (Medicus) Moldenke
AUA_ACC_24099 Russell 10 Aug 1971 Anderson, Robert
171
AUA
Stylodon Carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
AUA_ACC_7055 Baldwin 5 Jul 1960 Knight, Dwight
AUA
Stylodon Carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
TROY000024324 Hale 13 May 2003 Diamond, Alvin R.
13913
TROY
Stylodon carneus (Medicus) Moldenke
TROY000009593 Crenshaw 05 May 2002 Diamond, Alvin R.
13139
TROY
Stylodon carneus (Medicus) Moldenke
UWAL0005417 Lee 09 May 1950 Orr, W.P.
s.n.
UWAL
Verbena carnea Medik.
TROY000038233 Bullock 26 Apr 2012 Dykes, Bailee
577
TROY
Stylodon carneus (Medicus) Moldenke
AUA_ACC_19414 Henry 25 May 1971 Moore, Harold D.
1169
AUA
Stylodon Carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
UWAL0015932 Bullock 26 Aug 2012 Dykes, Bailee
577
UWAL
Verbena carnea Medik.
AUA_ACC_12699 Baldwin 29 Apr 1967 Barrick, William E.
AUA
Stylodon Carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
UWAL0010235 Bibb 27 May 2012 Keener, Brian R.
7293
UWAL
Verbena carnea Medik.
TROY000030992 Lee 09 May 1950 Orr, W.P.
s.n.
TROY
Stylodon carneus (Medicus) Moldenke
USAM000015181 Mobile 20 Apr 1967 LeLong, Michel G.
3039
USAM
Verbena carnea Medikus
AUA000042533 Covington 23 Apr 2012 Pancake, Jr., Dale C.
S.N.
AUA
Verbena Carnea Medik.
AUA_ACC_7674 Lee 26 May 1960 Jones, Jr., Samuel B.
193
AUA
Stylodon Carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
UWAL0004401 Covington 09 May 2005 Kral, Robert
96313
UWAL
Verbena carnea Medik.
AUA_ACC_37250 Clarke 11 May 1981 Henderson, T.
057
AUA
Stylodon Carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
AUA_ACC_12845 Chambers 20 May 1967 Golden, Michael
168
AUA
Stylodon Carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
USAM000015180 Mobile 23 Apr 1968 LeLong, Michel G.
4388
USAM
Verbena carnea Medikus
UNA00027782 Autauga _ Aug 1870 Smith, Eugene A.
s.n.
UNA
Stylodon carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
AUA_ACC_34639 Escambia 11 Jun 1979 Wells, Paul S.
AUA
Stylodon Carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
AUA_ACC_50873 Pike 20 May 1990 Diamond, Alvin R.
6914
AUA
Stylodon Carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
JSU137004 Russell 03 May 1973 Langley, Andrea E.
089
JSU
Verbena carnea Medicus
AUA_ACC_41732 Macon 20 May 1973 Botts, Daniel A.
159
AUA
Stylodon Carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
AUA_ACC_4051 Lee 9 May 1950 Orr, William P.
AUA
Stylodon Carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
UNA00039812 Autauga 31 May 1980 Meigs, Russell A.
705
UNA
Stylodon carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
TROY000024325 Hale 13 May 2003 Diamond, Alvin R.
13914
TROY
Stylodon carneus (Medicus) Moldenke
AUA_ACC_23988 Chilton 20 May 1971 Freeman, John D.
715
AUA
Stylodon Carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
USAM000015182 Mobile 30 Apr 1968 Scott, D.L.
143
USAM
Verbena carnea Medikus
ALNHS00006454 Russell 17 May 2019 Barger, T. Wayne
UFW#109
ALNHS
Verbena carnea Medik
AUA_ACC_10986 Lee 30 May 1963 Rogers, Ken E.
AUA
Stylodon Carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
AUA_ACC_4052 Lee 5 May 1949 Cunningham, Hugh B.
AUA
Stylodon Carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
UNA00061117 Tuscaloosa 11 May 2003 Spaulding, Daniel D.
11841
UNA
Stylodon carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
AUA_ACC_15294 Lee 11 May 1966 Searcy, James W.
AUA
Stylodon Carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
USAM000015178 Mobile 28 Apr 1967 LeLong, Michel G.
3094
USAM
Verbena carnea Medikus
UWAL0049313 Bullock 03 Jun 2017 Horne, Howard E.
3961
UWAL
Verbena carnea Medikus
UNA00039935 Tuscaloosa 06 May 1952 Williams, B.C.
s.n.
UNA
Stylodon carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
AUA_ACC_4048 Lee 11 May 1955 Mount, Robert H.
AUA
Stylodon Carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
UNA00067049 Sumter 14 May 2007 Keener, Brian R.
3605
UNA
Stylodon carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
TROY000009595 Pike 05 May 1989 Blanton, Lola M.
s.n.
TROY
Stylodon carneus (Medicus) Moldenke
UWAL0034816 Covington 08 May 1995 Kral, Robert
84573
UWAL
Verbena carnea Medikus
USAM000015179 Mobile 30 Apr 1968 Scott, D.L.
143
USAM
Verbena carnea Medikus
TROY000009596 Pike 05 May 1999 Martin, Brian H.
124
TROY
Stylodon carneus (Medicus) Moldenke
UNA00045747 Houston 30 Apr 1998 MacDonald, John R.
11100
UNA
Stylodon carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
TROY000024326 Sumter 14 May 2007 Keener, Brian R.
3605
TROY
Stylodon carneus (Medicus) Moldenke
TROY000024327 Tuscaloosa 11 May 2003 Spaulding, Daniel D.
11841
TROY
Stylodon carneus (Medicus) Moldenke
AUA000040477 Covington 31 May 2012 Hansen, Curtis J.
5594
AUA
Verbena Carnea Medik.
UWAL0004402 Sumter 14 May 2007 Keener, Brian R.
3605
UWAL
Verbena carnea Medik.
AUA_ACC_35935 Bibb 28 Jun 1979 Beckett, Scott W.
194
AUA
Stylodon Carneus (Medik.) Moldenke
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