Solanum elaeagnifolium

Species:Solanum elaeagnifolium Cavanilles
Common Name:Silverleaf Nightshade; White Horse Nettle
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:**
Plant Notes:Silverleaf Nightshade is an introduced perennial herbaceous plant in the Nightshade family (Solanaceae). It is native to the southern Plains south through South America and has been introduced around the world. It is considered a noxious weed in arid to semi-arid places including India, Australia, and South Africa. In Alabama it has been found in scattered locations in central and north Alabama. Silverleaf Nightshade is a perennial herb from an elongate taproot. It forms colonies from elongate rhizomes. The stems are 2-3 feet in height and branched above the middle. Stems may be armed with short, straight prickles or lack them. Leaves are alternate, petiolate, elliptic to oblong-lanceolate in outline, with undulate margins. The stems and leaves are densely covered with stellate (star shaped) hairs, giving them a silvery or grayish appearance. Flowers are produced in few-flowered axillary cymes. The calyx is five-lobed and stellate pubescent. The corolla is blue in color and 5-lobed in a star shape. The fruit is a globose yellow berry with many seed. Silverleaf Nightshade is toxic to humans or livestock if consumed. The plant contains solanine and glycoalkaloid solanidine. Consumption of the plant results in gastrointestinal, neurological, and coronary problems including emesis, stomach pains, dizziness, headaches, and arrhythmia.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Not Native
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.


FamilySOLANACEAE - Nightshade/Potato family
Genus Solanum
Species Solanum elaeagnifolium Cavanilles - Silverleaf Nightshade; White Horse Nettle


Citation SOLANUM ELAEAGNIFOLIUM Cavanilles, Icon. 3: 22, t. 243. 1795.
Basionym: **
Type: **

** Not applicable or data not available.


SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Solanum dealbatum Solanum dealbatum Lindley, Trans. Hort. Soc. London 7: 52. 1830.  
Solanum elaeagnifolium var. leprosum Solanum elaeagnifolium Cavanilles, var. leprosum (Ortega) Dunal, in de Candolle, Prodr. 13(1): 291. 1852.Solanum leprosum Ortega 1800. 
Solanum elaeagnifolium var. obtusifolium Solanum elaeagnifolium Cavanilles, var. obtusifolium Dunal, in de Candolle, Prodr. 13(1): 291. 1852.Solanum obtusifolium Dunal 1816, non Willdenow 1814. 
Solanum flavidum Solanum flavidum Torrey, Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York 2: 227. 1828.  
Solanum hindsianum Solanum hindsianum Bentham, Bot. Voy. Sulphur 39. 1844.  
Solanum leprosum Solanum leprosum Ortega, Nov. Pl. Descr. Dec. 115. 1800. CHILE: Without data (holotype: MA; isotype: MPU).
Solanum obtusifolium Solanum obtusifolium Dunal, Solan. Syn. 26. 1816, non Willdenow 1814. MEXICO
Solanum roemerianum Solanum roemerianum Scheele, Linnaea 21: 767. 1848.  
Solanum saponaceum Solanum saponaceum Hooker, Bot. Mag. 53: t. 2697. 1826, non Dunal 1813.  
Solanum texense Solanum texense Engelmann & A. Gray, Boston J. Nat. Hist. 5: 227. 1845. TEXAS: Without data, Lindheimer 135 (holotype: MO; isotypes: K).

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Calhoun, Cherokee, Jefferson, Mobile, Montgomery

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: JSU, UNA, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
UWAL0039204 Montgomery 09 Sep 2018 Diamond, Alvin R.
Solanum elaeagnifolium Cavanilles
JSU134438 Cherokee 8 Jul 1969 Rebecca Bible
Solanum elaeagnifolium Cavanilles
JSU134435 Calhoun 15 May 1956 Weyman Traylor
Solanum elaeagnifolium Cavanilles
UNA00038693 Mobile 27 Sep 1894 Charles Mohr
Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.
JSU134437 Cherokee 8 Jul 1969 Norma Beaty
Solanum elaeagnifolium Cavanilles
UNA00038688 Jefferson 6 Sep 1944 Roland M. Harper
Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.
JSU134436 Cherokee 8 Jul 1969 Jerry Ellard
Solanum elaeagnifolium Cavanilles
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