Ailanthus altissima

Family:SIMAROUBACEAE
Species:Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
Common Name:Tree of Heaven; Copal Tree; Stink Tree
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Tree
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:**
Plant Notes:Tree of Heaven is an introduced deciduous tree in the Quassia family (Simaroubaceae). It is native to Taiwan and central China. In Alabama it can be found throughout the state, mostly in urban areas. Tree of Heaven grows along roadsides and railroads, in vacant lots, and sometimes invades disturbed forests. It is commonly seen growing from cracks in sidewalks and building in cities. In “A Tree Grows in Brooklyn”, a Tree of Heaven grows from a crack in the cement of a courtyard where the Nolan family lives. It was first introduced into the United States in Pennsylvania (1784) and in New York (1820) where it was planted as an ornamental. Tree of Heaven is a deciduous tree that can reach 80 feet in height, but it often shrubby in growth form. It has shallow roots, and often forms thickets from suckers. It has a straight trunk with smooth gray bark. The wood is brittle and trees often break or loose limbs. Leaves are alternate, odd pinnately compound with 15-27 leaflets, and can be 3 feet in length. The leaflets are lanceolate in outline with 1-5 gland tipped teeth near the base. The leaves are pubescent and glandular on both surfaces. Flowers are produced in large terminal panicles on short shoots. The flowers are usually unisexual, though some individuals produce perfect flowers. The flowers have 5 green, pubescent petals. The flowers and foliage produces a malodorous smell, especially when damaged. The fruit is a winged schizocarp. Tree of Heaven is also allelopathic (it produces a chemical that is released into the environment and inhibits other plants). Other common names for this species include “ghetto palm”, “Chinese Sumac”, “Stink Tree”, and “Tree of He**”. Tree of Heaven is listed as a Category 2 invasive species in Alabama by the Alabama Invasive Plant Council.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Not Native
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilySIMAROUBACEAE - Quassia family
Genus Ailanthus
Species Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle - Tree of Heaven; Copal Tree; Stink Tree

Citation

Citation AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA (Miller) Swingle, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 6: 495. 1916.
Basionym: Toxicodendron altissimum Miller 1768.
Type: CHINA: Cult. in England,

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Ailanthus altissima var. erythrocarpa Ailanthus altissima (Miller) Swingle, var. erythrocarpa (Carrière) Rehder, Man. Cult. Trees 527. 1927.Ailanthus erythrocarpa Carrière 1867. 
Ailanthus altissima var. pendulifolia Ailanthus altissima (Miller) Swingle, var. pendulifolia (Dippel) Rehder, Man. Cult. Trees 527. 1927.Ailanthus glandulosa Desfontaines, var. pendulifolia Dippel 1892. 
Ailanthus altissima var. sutchuensis Ailanthus altissima (Miller) Swingle, var. sutchuensis (Dode) Rehder & E. H. Wilson, in Sargent, Pl. Wilson. 3: 449. 1917.Ailanthus sutchuensis Dode 1907. 
Ailanthus cacodendron Ailanthus cacodendron (Ehrhart) Schinz & Thellung, Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 38: 679. 1912.Rhus cacodendron Ehrhart 1783. 
Ailanthus cacodendron var. sutchuensis Ailanthus cacodendron (Ehrhart) Schinz & Thellung, var. sutchuensis (Dode) Rehder & E. H. Wilson, in Sargent, Pl. Wilson. 2: 153. 1914.Ailanthus sutchuensis Dode 1907. 
Ailanthus erythrocarpa Ailanthus erythrocarpa Carrière, Rev. Hort. 38: 419. 1867. CHINA
Ailanthus giraldii var. duclouxii Ailanthus giraldii Dode, var. duclouxii Dode ex Rehder, Man. Cult. Trees 527. 1927.  
Ailanthus glandulosa var. rubra Ailanthus glandulosa Desfontaines, var. rubra (H. Jaeger) Dippel, Handb. Laubholzk. 2: 365. 1892.Ailanthus rubra H. Jaeger 1884. 
Ailanthus glandulosa var. erythrocarpa Ailanthus glandulosa Desfontaines, var. erythrocarpa (Carrière) Mouillefert, Traite Arbr. Arbriss. 1: 222. 1891.Ailanthus erythrocarpa Carrière 1867. 
Ailanthus glandulosa var. pendulifolia Ailanthus glandulosa Desfontaines, var. pendulifolia Dippel, Handb. Laubholzk. 2: 365. 1892.  
Ailanthus glandulosa var. spinosa Ailanthus glandulosa Desfontaines, var. spinosa A. Vilmorin & Bois, Frutic. Vilmor. 31. 1904.  
Ailanthus glandulosa var. sutchuensis Ailanthus glandulosa Desfontaines, var. sutchuensis (Dode) Rehder, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., ed. 2. 1912: 187. 1913.Ailanthus sutchuensis Dode 1907. 
Ailanthus macrophylla Ailanthus macrophylla G. Nicholson, Hand-List Trees Shrubs 1: 53. 1894.  
Ailanthus mascula Ailanthus mascula G. Nicholson, Hand-List Trees Shrubs 1: 94. 1894.  
Ailanthus peregrina Ailanthus peregrina (Buchoz) Barkley, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 24: 264. 1937.Albonia peregrina Buchoz 1783. 
Ailanthus pongelion Ailanthus pongelion J. F. Gmelin, Syst. Nat. 2: 726. 1791, nom. illegit.Ailanthus glandulosa Desfontaines 1788. 
Ailanthus procera Ailanthus procera Salisbury, Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 171. 1796, nom. illegit.Ailanthus cacodendron Ehrhart 1783. 
Ailanthus rhodoptera Ailanthus rhodoptera F. Mueller, Fragm. 3: 43. 1862.  
Ailanthus rubra Ailanthus rubra H. Jaeger, in H. Jaeger & Beissner, Ziergeh. Gaertn. Parkanl., ed. 2. 18. 1884.  
Ailanthus sutchuensis Ailanthus sutchuensis Dode, Bull. Soc. Dendrol. France 1907: 192. 1907. CHINA
Ailanthus vilmoriniana Ailanthus vilmoriniana Dode, Rev. Hort. 1904: 444, f. 184. 1904.Ailanthus glandulosa Desfontaines, var. spinosa A. Vilmorin & Bois 1904. 
Albonia peregrina Albonia peregrina Buchoz, Herb. Color. Amerique pl. 57. 1783.  
Pongelion cacodendron Pongelion cacodendron (Ehrhart) Farwell, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 12: 67. 1930.Rhus cacodendron Ehrhart 1783. 
Pongelion glandulosum Pongelion glandulosum (Desfontaines) Pierre, Fl. Cochinch. 4: pl. 294. 1893.Ailanthus glandulosa Desfontaines 1788. 
Pongelion vilmorinianum Pongelion vilmorinianum (Dode) Van Tiegham, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 9. 4: 276. 1906.ilanthus vilmorinianum Dode 1904; Ailanthus glandulosa Desfontaines, var. spinosa A. Vilmorin & Bois 1904. 
Rhus cacodendron Rhus cacodendron Ehrhart, Hannover. Mag. 21: 225. 1783.  
Rhus sinensis Rhus sinensis J. Ellis ex Houttuyn, Nat. Hist. 2: 212. 1774.  
Toxicodendron altissimum Toxicodendron altissimum Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. 1768. CHINA: Cult. in England,
Ailanthus glandulosa Ailanthus glandulosa Desfontaines, Mém. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 1786: 265, pl. 8. 1788.  

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Blount, Bullock, Butler, Calhoun, Cherokee, Coffee, Conecuh, Crenshaw, Cullman, Etowah, Jackson, Jefferson, Lauderdale, Lee, Madison, Marengo, Marshall, Mobile, Montgomery, Pike, St. Clair, Sumter, Tuscaloosa

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 2013 - 2013

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
TROY000009227 Coffee 15 Sep 2000 Brian H. Martin
959
TROY
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
JSU134172 Marshall 11 Oct 1991 D. D. Spaulding
1070
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
10155 Lee 19 APR 1962 BASS, M. H.
AUA
AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA (P. MILL.) SWINGLE
UNA00055631 Blount 8 Jun 1998 Brian R. Keener
935
UNA
Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill.) Swingle
JSU134170 Madison 29 Jun 1969 Jessica Tudor
s.n.
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
JSU144244 Calhoun 25 May 1969 K. E. Landers
s.n.
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
TROY000023986 Marshall 12 Jun 1993 J. M. Ballard
2599
TROY
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
73113 Lauderdale 9 JUL 2015 ENGLAND, J. KEVIN
5521
AUA
AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA (P. MILL.) SWINGLE
JSU134155 Calhoun 5 Oct 1986 C. L. Lawler
1320
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
JSU134171 Marshall 30 Jul 1992 D. D. Spaulding
2455
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
UWAL0019503 Lauderdale 09 Jul 2015 England, J. Kevin
5521
UWAL
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
JSU134158 Cherokee 8 Jul 1969 Jan E. Payne
s.n.
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
USAM000014634 Mobile 24 Aug 1976 Michael G. Lelong
9440
USAM
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
JSU134162 Etowah 19 Jun 1994 L. M. Hodge
2652
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
UWAL0035222 Madison 02 Jun 2017 England, J. Kevin
7917
UWAL
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
49011 Bullock 9 MAY 1988 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
4741
AUA
AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA (P. MILL.) SWINGLE
JSU134150 Calhoun 27 Sep 1992 D. D. Spaulding
2945
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
JSU134156 Cherokee 8 Jul 1969 Peggy Cobb
s.n.
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
JSU134163 Etowah 21 Jun 1969 Jan Cofield
s.n.
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
SAMF0003386 Cullman 08 May 1965 Myers, Martha Crystal
s.n.
SAMF
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
UWAL0011298 Butler 25 Jun 2012 Diamond, Alvin R.
23136
UWAL
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
JSU134166 Jackson 1 Jun 1969 Kenneth E. Landers
s.n.
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
TROY000023985 Jackson 20 Jul 2008 Brian R. Keener
4697
TROY
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
10149 Lee 19 APR 1962 LANDERS, KENNETH E.
AUA
AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA (P. MILL.) SWINGLE
72151 Marengo 19 JUL 2013 ENGLAND, J. KEVIN
4427
AUA
AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA (P. MILL.) SWINGLE
UWAL0012624 Bullock 29 Mar 2012 Dykes, Bailee
0471
UWAL
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
JSU134153 Calhoun 27 Sep 1992 D. D. Spaulding
2945
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
JSU134161 Cherokee 8 Jul 1969 Jan Cofield
s.n.
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
USAM000014633 Mobile 24 Aug 1976 Michael G. Lelong
9440
USAM
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
JSU134159 Cherokee 8 Jul 1969 Kenneth E. Landers
s.n.
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
UWAL0017427 Marengo 19 Jul 2013 England, J. Kevin
4427
UWAL
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
56159 Bullock 4 MAY 1994 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
9129
AUA
AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA (P. MILL.) SWINGLE
JSU134152 Calhoun 20 Sep 1992 D. D. Spaulding
2880
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
47112 Conecuh 13 SEP 1987 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
3619
AUA
AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA (P. MILL.) SWINGLE
TROY000038493 Bullock 29 Mar 2012 Bailee Dykes
471
TROY
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
JSU134165 Jackson 15 May 1998 K. R. Brodeur
1036
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
UWAL0004213 Sumter 10 Jul 2006 Keener, Brian R.
3182
UWAL
Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill) Swingle
UWAL0004212 Jackson 20 Jul 2008 Keener, Brian R.
4697
UWAL
Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill) Swingle
UNA00064167 Jackson 15 May 1998 K. R. Brodeur
1036
UNA
Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill.) Swingle
TROY000043595 Marengo 19 Jul 2013 J. Kevin England
4427
TROY
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
JSU134167 Madison 17 Aug 1967 Ross C. Clark
18392
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
JSU134168 Madison 11 May 1996 D. D. Spaulding
8288
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
JSU134157 Etowah 14 Sep 1982 F. E. Pugh
44
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
TROY000009228 Pike 20 May 1989 Michelle Hughes
29
TROY
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
TROY000043938 Montgomery 12 May 2016 Alvin R. Diamond
27390
TROY
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
JSU134169 Madison 22 Jun 1969 Jessica Tudor
s.n.
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
JSU153920 St. Clair 10 Jul 1969 Jerry A. Clonts
s.n.
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
UNA00066924 Sumter 10 Jul 2006 Brian R. Keener
3182
UNA
Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill.) Swingle
JSU134151 Calhoun 13 Sep 1992 D. D. Spaulding
2876
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
3189 Lee 15 MAY 1949 CUNNINGHAM, HUGH B.
AUA
AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA (P. MILL.) SWINGLE
UNA00062312 Jefferson 18 Jun 2003 D. D. Spaulding
11973
UNA
Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill.) Swingle
JSU134160 Calhoun 24 May 1969 K. E. Landers
s.n.
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
TROY000035586 Butler 25 Jun 2012 Alvin R. Diamond
23136
TROY
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
63402 Jefferson 18 JUN 2003 SPAULDING, DANIEL D.
11973
AUA
AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA (P. MILL.) SWINGLE
TROY000024120 Crenshaw 03 Aug 2008 Alvin R. Diamond
19706
TROY
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
JSU134154 Calhoun 13 Sep 1992 D. D. Spaulding
2876
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
55275 Pike 10 MAY 1994 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
9154
AUA
AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA (P. MILL.) SWINGLE
TROY000023984 Jefferson 18 Jun 2003 Daniel D. Spaulding
11973
TROY
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
JSU134164 Jackson 15 Jul 1998 K. R. Brodeur
1036
JSU
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
SAMF0003385 Tuscaloosa 28 May 1982 Davenport, L. J.
2248
SAMF
Ailanthus altissima (P. Miller) Swingle
17229 Lee 3 AUG 1969 MILLER, L. C.
222
AUA
AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA (P. MILL.) SWINGLE
UNA00064166 Jackson 15 May 1998 K. R. Brodeur
1036
UNA
Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill.) Swingle
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