Schwalbea americana

Family:OROBANCHACEAE
Species:Schwalbea americana Linnaeus
Common Name:Chaffseed
Habitat:Wet to dry fire maintained pine savannahs and flatwoods. A hemiparasite on various herbaceous and woody species.
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:SCAM
Plant Notes:Chaffseed is a native herbaceous perennial in the Broomrape family (Orobanchaceae). It occurs in very widely scattered locations in the southern half of the state. Chaffseed occurs in open, wet to dry fire maintained pine savannahs and flatwoods. It is a hemiparasite (a plant that obtains nutrients from a host species by interconnected roots but also contains chlorophyll) on various herbaceous and woody species. Chaffseed is an erect herb with 1-2 foot tall unbranched stems or stems branched only at the base. It is a perennial from a tap root. The stems are green in color and minutely pubescent. The leaves are sessile, alternate, lanceolate to elliptic in outline, with entire margins. The leaves are largest at the base of the plant and are gradually reduced in size upwards. The leaves are pubescent on both surfaces. The flowers are produced in a terminal spike-like raceme. Flowers are produced singly in the axils of reduced bract-like leaves. Individual flowers are tubular in shape, pubescent, and a pinkish-yellow color. The fruit is a long narrow capsule subtended by the persistent calyx. Chaffseed is listed as a S1 species in Alabama (typically 5 or fewer occurrences, very few remaining individuals, acres, or miles of stream, or some factor of its biology making it especially vulnerable in the state), and globally as a G2-G3 species (G2 - Imperiled globally because of rarity (6 - 20 occurrences, or few remaining acres, or miles of stream) or very vulnerable to extinction throughout its range because of other factors. G3 - Imperiled globally because of rarity (6 - 20 occurrences, or few remaining acres, or miles of stream) or very vulnerable to extinction throughout its range because of other factors). It was listed as an endangered species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on September 29th, 1992.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:Listed as Federally Endangered as of 29 Sep 1992.
Status:Native, Endangered-US, FAC (NWI), S1 (State Rank), G2G3 (Global Rank)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyOROBANCHACEAE - Broomrape family
Genus Schwalbea
Species Schwalbea americana Linnaeus - Chaffseed

Citation

Citation SCHWALBEA AMERICANA Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 606. 1753.
Basionym: **
Type: VIRGINIA: Without data, Clayton 33 (lectotype: BM). Lectotypified by Pennell, Torreya 19: 235. 1920.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Schwalbea americana var. australis Schwalbea americana Linnaeus, var. australis (Pennell) Reveal & C. R. Broome, Castanea 46: 75. 1981.Schwalbea australis Pennell 1920. 
Schwalbea australis Schwalbea australis Pennell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 71: 289. 1920. FLORIDA: Volusia Co.: Near Seville, 10 May 1900, Curtiss 6742 (holotype: NY; isotypes: GH, MO, MIN, US).

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Bullock, Geneva, Mobile

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: ALNHS, TROY, UNA, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
UNA00042484 Mobile _ Jun 1868 Mohr, Charles
s.n.
UNA
Schwalbea americana L.
UWAL0017577 Geneva 11 Jun 1971 Kral, R.
43278
UWAL
Schwalbea americana Linnaeus
TROY000035273 Bullock 17 May 2012 Dykes, Bailee
735
TROY
Schwalbea americana Linnaeus
ALNHS00007081 Bullock 30 May 2020 Hermann, Sharon
s.n.
ALNHS
Schwalbea americana L.
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