Gratiola amphiantha

Family:PLANTAGINACEAE
Species:Gratiola amphiantha D. Estes & R.L. Small
Common Name:Granite Pool Sprite; Snorkelwort; Little Amphianthus
Habitat:Vernal pools on granite outcrops.
Associated Ecological Communities:Granite Outcrops
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Annual
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:**
Plant Notes:Granite Pool Sprite is a native herbaceous annual in the Plantain family (Plantaginaceae). It is known from 4 counties in central east Alabama near the Georgia state line. Granite Pool Sprite occurs in shallow vernal pools with thin soils in full sun on granite outcrops and flat rocks. The pools must be deep enough to retain water for several weeks. Granite Pool Sprite is an annual, germinating when the pools fill with rainwater during the late fall and early winter months. It has a fibrous root system. Granite Pool Sprite produces two types of leaves—a submerged basal rosette and floating leaves. The basal leaves are lanceolate in outline and sessile. The floating leaves occur in pairs on thread-like stems. They are oval to elliptic in outline and glandular punctate. Two types of flowers are produced. Cleistogamous flowers (flowers that self-pollinate and do not open) are produced in the axils of the basal leaves. Chasmogamous flowers are produced singly between the two floating leaves. They have a tubular white corolla with 5 spreading lobes. The fruit is a capsule. Granite Pool Sprite was listed as a Threatened Species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on February 5, 1988. It is listed as a S1 species in Alabama (typically 5 or fewer occurrences, very few remaining individuals, acres, or miles of stream, or some factor of its biology making it especially vulnerable in the state), and globally as a G2 species (imperiled globally because of rarity (6 - 20 occurrences, or few remaining acres, or miles of stream) or very vulnerable to extinction throughout its range because of other factors).--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:Listed as Federally Threatened as of 5 Feb 1988. The name used at the time of listing was Amphianthus pusillus.
Status:Native, Threatened-US, S1 (State Rank), G2 (Global Rank)
References:Torrey, J. 1837. New Genera and Species of North American Plants. Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York 4(1): 82–83.
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyPLANTAGINACEAE - Plantain family
Genus Gratiola
Species Gratiola amphiantha D. Estes & R.L. Small - Granite Pool Sprite; Snorkelwort; Little Amphianthus

Citation

Citation Gratiola amphiantha D. Estes & R.L. Small, Syst. Bot. 33(1): 181. 2008.
Basionym: Amphianthus pusillus Torr. 1837.
Type: GEORGIA. Newton Co.: M.C. Leavenworth s.n.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Amphianthus pusillus    

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Chambers, Lee, Randolph, Tallapoosa

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
SAMF0004727 Randolph 03 Feb 2010 Davenport, L. J.
4158
SAMF
Gratiola amphiantha D. Estes & R. L. Small
UNA00041474 Chambers 12 Feb 1981 Robert R. Haynes
8232
UNA
Amphianthus pusillus Torr.
UWAL0013375 Chambers 28 Apr 2011 England, J. Kevin
2850
UWAL
Gratiola amphiantha D. Estes & R.L. Small
UNA00067274 Tallapoosa 24 Mar 2006 Alfred Schotz
2000
UNA
Amphianthus pusillus Torr.
AUA_ACC058089 Chambers 12 FEB 1981 FREEMAN, JOHN D.
AUA
GRATIOLA AMPHIANTHA D. ESTES & R.L. SMALL
SAMF0006007 Randolph 08 Feb 2016 Davenport, L. J.
6010
SAMF
Gratiola amphiantha D. Estes & R. L. Small
TROY000023742 Chambers 12 Feb 1981 John D. Freeman
s.n.
TROY
Amphianthus pusillus Torrey
UWAL0037564 Lee 08 Apr 2018 Allison, James R.
14472
UWAL
Gratiola amphiantha D. Estes & R.L. Small
UWAL0013380 Randolph 28 Apr 2011 England, J. Kevin
2857
UWAL
Gratiola amphiantha D. Estes & R.L. Small
JSU141320 Randolph 01 Apr 1984 R. D. Whetstone
s.n.
JSU
Gratiola amphiantha D. Estes & R.L. Small
AUA_ACC058427 Randolph 10 MAR 1991 FREEMAN, JOHN D.
AUA
GRATIOLA AMPHIANTHA D. ESTES & R.L. SMALL
SAMF0004731 Chambers 29 Jan 2012 Davenport, L. J.
4952
SAMF
Gratiola amphiantha D. Estes & R. L. Small
SAMF0005982 Randolph 21 Feb 2016 Davenport, L. J.
6011
SAMF
Gratiola amphiantha D. Estes & R. L. Small
AUA_ACC058688 Randolph 10 MAR 1992 FREEMAN, JOHN D.
AUA
GRATIOLA AMPHIANTHA D. ESTES & R.L. SMALL
SAMF0004729 Randolph 05 Feb 2012 Davenport, L. J.
4953
SAMF
Gratiola amphiantha D. Estes & R. L. Small
AUA_ACC066869 Tallapoosa 24 MAR 2006 SCHOTZ, ALFRED
2000
AUA
GRATIOLA AMPHIANTHA D. ESTES & R.L. SMALL
AUA_ACC058626 Randolph 19 MAR 1992 FREEMAN, JOHN D.
AUA
GRATIOLA AMPHIANTHA D. ESTES & R.L. SMALL
UWAL0012108 Randolph 03 Feb 2010 Davenport, L.J.
4159
UWAL
Gratiola amphiantha D. Estes & R.L. Small
SAMF0004728 Randolph 03 Feb 2010 Davenport, L. J.
4159
SAMF
Gratiola amphiantha D. Estes & R. L. Small
SAMF0004730 Chambers 27 Jan 2010 Davenport, L. J.
4157
SAMF
Gratiola amphiantha D. Estes & R. L. Small
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  • Granite Outcrops – Granite outcrops are areas where metamorphic rock has been naturally exposed at the surface. Sometimes these are more or less confluent with the surrounding soil surfaces while sometimes they form a dome like structure (ie Stone Mountain, GA). The thin soil on the outcrop margin as well as small depressions within support a unique plant community that include many rare plant species. Granite outcrops in Alabama can be mafic or acidic which yield entirely different plant assemblages though some species can occur on both types. Mafic granite outcrops share many species with limestone glades while acidic granite outcrops are more like sandstone outcrops.--B. Keener

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