Citrus trifoliata

Family:RUTACEAE
Species:Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
Common Name:Hardy Orange; Trifoliate Orange
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Shrub
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:**
Plant Notes:Hardy Orange is an introduced perennial woody shrub in the Citrus family (Rutaceae). It occurs statewide in Alabama. Hardy Orange grows in pastures, on fence rows, in vacant lots, and along streams. It is usually a multi-trunked shrub with green stems. The stems are armed with large thorns. Hardy Orange has alternate, deciduous, trifoliate leaves. In the spring it produces showy white flowers with five petals. These are followed by a hairy fruit that is about the size of a golf ball. The fruit becomes yellowish orange when it matures. The fruit is very seedy and tart, but can be used to make drinks and marmalade. Processing the fruit often leaves a resin-like residue that is difficult to remove. Hardy Orange is used as a root stock for grafting other citrus species. It is the most cold hardy of the citrus species, and other species are hardier when grown on this rootstock. It has also been widely planted as a hedge to contain livestock or prevent trespassing. Many birds prefer to nest in this species as it is difficult for many predators to reach their nests because of the spines. Hardy Orange can easily be grown from seed, and is often available through nurseries. Flying Dragon is a cultivar with curved thorns. Citrange is a hybrid between this species and the Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis).--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:Known as Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. in most floras and manuals.
Status:Not Native
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyRUTACEAE - Citrus/Rue family
Genus Citrus
Species Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus - Hardy Orange; Trifoliate Orange

Citation

Citation CITRUS TRIFOLIATA Linnaeus, Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 1101. 1763.
Basionym: **
Type: JAPAN: Without data (lectotype: Kaempfer, Amoen. Exot. Fasc. t. 802. 1712). Lectotypified by Swingle, in Webber & Batchelor, Citrus Industr. 368. 1943.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Aegle sepiaria Aegle sepiaria de Candolle, Prodr. 1: 538. 1824, nom. illegit.Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus 1763. 
Citrus trifolia Citrus trifolia Thunberg, Fl. Japon. 294. 1784, nom. illegit.Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus 1763. 
Citrus trifoliata var. monstrosa Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus, var. monstrosa T. Itô, Encycl. Jap. 2: 1056. JAPAN
Citrus triptera Citrus triptera Desfontaines, Tabl. Ecole Bot., ed. 3. 406. 1829.  
Limonia trichocarpa Limonia trichocarpa Hance, J. Bot. 15: 258. 1882.  
Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa Poncirus trifoliata (Linnaeus) Rafinesque, var. monstrosa (T. Itô) Swingle, in L. H. Bailey, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 5: 2952. 1916.Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus, var. monstrosa T. Itô 1909. 
Poncirus trifoliata PONCIRUS TRIFOLIATA (Linnaeus) Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 143. 1838. JAPAN: Without data (lectotype: Kaempfer, Amoen. Exot. Fasc. t. 802. 1712). Lectotypified by Swingle, in Webber & Batchelor, Citrus Industr. 368. 1943.
Pseudaegle sepiaria Pseudaegle sepiaria Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 83. 1865, nom. illegit.Aegle sepiaria de Candolle 1824, nom. illegit.; Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus 1763. 
Pseudaegle trifoliata Pseudaegle trifoliata (Linnaeus) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16: 15. 1902.Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus 1763. 

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Baldwin, Blount, Bullock, Butler, Calhoun, Chambers, Choctaw, Coffee, Colbert, Conecuh, Crenshaw, Dale, Dallas, Elmore, Escambia, Hale, Jackson, Jefferson, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Lee, Limestone, Lowndes, Macon, Marengo, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Pike, Randolph, Shelby, St. Clair, Sumter, Talladega, Tallapoosa, Tuscaloosa, Wilcox

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: ALNHS, AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, USAM, UWAL, UWFP

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1967 - 1988

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
AUA_ACC_62664 Colbert 28 Mar 2003 Valente, M.J.
22
AUA
Poncirus Trifoliata (L.) Raf.
USAM000014092 Baldwin 18 Oct 1972 Smith, Pat
11
USAM
Poncirus trifoliata (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
AUA000043828 Lee 23 Mar 2019 Taylor, Chris T.
CSP-601
AUA
Citrus Trifoliata L.
TROY000036342 Bullock 18 Jul 2012 Dykes, Bailee
1427
TROY
Poncirus trifoliata (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
TROY000032447 Montgomery 07 Apr 2011 Diamond, Alvin R.
21853
TROY
Poncirus trifoliata (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
TROY000008795 Conecuh 28 Oct 2006 Diamond, Alvin R.
17176
TROY
Poncirus trifoliata (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWFP016471 Baldwin 12 Oct 1974 James R. Burkhalter
1958
UWFP
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.
JSU132834 Talladega 13 Oct 1992 Ballard, J. Mark
745
JSU
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
JSU132828 Limestone 1 Mar 1997 Hofmann, Tim L.
00268
JSU
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
UWAL0033503 Lawrence 16 Jul 2016 England, J. Kevin
6652
UWAL
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
JSU132817 Calhoun 9 Apr 1967 Boone, W.E. (Bill)
2-92
JSU
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
TROY000023472 Colbert 02 Apr 2004 Spaulding, Daniel D.
12070
TROY
Poncirus trifoliata (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU132833 Talladega 23 May 1999 Brodeur, Kristin R.
1925
JSU
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
AUA000040160 Jefferson 11 Feb 2015 Barger, T. Wayne
TC6
AUA
Citrus Trifoliata L.
AUA_ACC_44971 Conecuh 31 Jan 1986 Diamond, Alvin R.
2030
AUA
Poncirus Trifoliata (L.) Raf.
ALNHS00000530 Dallas 16 Apr 2010 Barger, T. Wayne
OC-89
ALNHS
Citrus trifoliata L.
JSU132819 Calhoun 5 Oct 1986 Lawler, Carol L.
1298
JSU
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
UWAL0005485 Montgomery 07 Apr 2011 Diamond, A.R.
21853
UWAL
Citrus trifoliata L.
AUA_ACC_19867 Lauderdale 14 May 1970 Angel, J.K.
AUA
Poncirus Trifoliata (L.) Raf.
AUA_ACC_10672 Macon 15 May 1963 Smoot, B.C.
AUA
Poncirus Trifoliata (L.) Raf.
TROY000039519 Elmore 07 Jul 2011 Pullen, Robert
27
TROY
Poncirus trifliata Liinaeus
UNA00064078 Jackson 15 Jul 1998 Brodeur, Kristin R.
1031
UNA
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.
UNA00037002 Hale 07 Oct 1967 Thomas, Joab L.
1243
UNA
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.
UWAL0035990 Blount 19 Apr 2015 Anderson, Kelly
0764
UWAL
Citrus trifoliata L.
UNA00066922 Sumter 10 Jul 2006 Keener, Brian R.
3179
UNA
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.
AUA_ACC_14611 Lee 6 Apr 1969 Sheldon, Joe
77
AUA
Poncirus Trifoliata (L.) Raf.
JSU132823 Calhoun 7 Jul 1982 Whetstone, R. David
11392
JSU
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
UWAL0003972 Sumter 10 Jul 2006 Keener, Brian R.
3179
UWAL
Citrus trifoliata L.
TROY000008797 Lee 05 Apr 2006 Hansen, Curtis J.
2083
TROY
Poncirus trifoliata (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
TROY000008798 Monroe 20 Sep 2007 Diamond, Alvin R.
18258
TROY
Poncirus trifoliata (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU132818 Calhoun 9 Apr 1967 Boone, W.E. (Bill)
s.n.
JSU
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_58904 Pike 1999 Martin, Brian
94
AUA
Poncirus Trifoliata (L.) Raf.
UWAL0014103 Bullock 18 Jul 2012 Dykes, Bailee
1427
UWAL
Citrus trifoliata L.
JSU132830 Monroe 12 Sep 1997 Whetstone, R. David
18517
JSU
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
UNA00037001 Lowndes 09 Jul 1988 Burckhalter, Robert
1429
UNA
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.
UWFP016473 Mobile 20 Oct 1993 James R. Burkhalter
13945
UWFP
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.
AUA_ACC_57041 Crenshaw 25 Oct 1997 Diamond, Alvin R.
11147
AUA
Poncirus Trifoliata (L.) Raf.
JSU132821 Calhoun 7 May 1986 Lawler, Carol L.
397
JSU
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
UWAL0005350 Wilcox 12 May 2011 Diamond, A.R.
22063
UWAL
Citrus trifoliata L.
AUA_ACC_64491 Colbert 2 Apr 2004 Spaulding, Daniel D.
12070
AUA
Poncirus Trifoliata (L.) Raf.
JSU132824 Choctaw 1 Nov 1997 Whetstone, R. David
19040
JSU
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_15687 Lee 15 Jul 1969 Rebois, R.V.
042
AUA
Poncirus Trifoliata (L.) Raf.
SAMF0003378 Jefferson 25 Mar 2007 Davenport, Lawrence J.
3648
SAMF
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
TROY000008800 Pike 20 May 1989 Hughes, Michelle
41
TROY
Poncirus trifoliata (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
TROY000032432 Wilcox 12 May 2011 Diamond, Alvin R.
22063
TROY
Poncirus trifoliata (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWFP016474 Escambia 02 May 1987 James R. Burkhalter
10582
UWFP
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.
TROY000044534 Shelby 20 Mar 2010 Spaulding, Daniel D.
13228
TROY
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_65433 Lee 5 Apr 2006 Hansen, Curtis J.
2083
AUA
Poncirus Trifoliata (L.) Raf.
AUA_ACC_57026 Pike 20 Oct 1997 Diamond, Alvin R.
11146
AUA
Poncirus Trifoliata (L.) Raf.
JSU132829 St. Clair 13 Jul 1969 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_59079 Chambers 11 Jul 2000 Hansen, Curtis J.
2000-38
AUA
Poncirus Trifoliata (L.) Raf.
UNA00064079 Jackson 15 Jul 1998 Brodeur, Kristin R.
1031
UNA
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.
TROY000023303 Butler 27 Mar 2008 Diamond, Alvin R.
18814
TROY
Poncirus trifoliata (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWAL0048048 Bullock 26 Oct 2017 Soehren, Eric C.
531
UWAL
Citrus trifoliata L.
AUA000038324 Morgan 5 Jun 2016 England, J. Kevin
6531
AUA
Citrus Trifoliata L.
UNA00064129 Colbert 2 Apr 2004 Spaulding, Daniel D.
12070
UNA
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.
UWAL0009998 Shelby 20 Mar 2010 Spaulding, Dan
13228
UWAL
Citrus trifoliata L.
TROY000051889 Lowndes 31 Mar 2014 Mincey, K.A.
9
TROY
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
TROY000008796 Dale 07 Sep 2000 Pennington, Tiffany
1039
TROY
Poncirus trifoliata (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UNA00037007 Tuscaloosa 07 Nov 1979 Davenport, Lawrence J.
1604
UNA
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.
AUA_ACC_44548 Mobile 18 Oct 1975 Mills, F.
050
AUA
Poncirus Trifoliata (L.) Raf.
UWAL0003971 Marengo 27 Mar 2009 England, J. Kevin
1760
UWAL
Citrus trifoliata L.
JSU132831 Monroe 12 Sep 1997 Whetstone, R. David
18517
JSU
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
UNA00066790 Conecuh 28 Oct 2006 Diamond, Alvin R.
17177
UNA
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.
JSU132822 Calhoun 20 Jul 1982 Whetstone, R. David
11535
JSU
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_13027 Lee 28 Mar 1967 Lipps, E.Lewis
AUA
Poncirus Trifoliata (L.) Raf.
JSU132827 Lauderdale 10 Apr 1969 McWilliams, Linda
s.n.
JSU
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
UWAL0019556 Randolph 24 Jul 1990 Kral, R.
77966
UWAL
Citrus trifoliata L.
UWAL0047748 Lawrence 28 Mar 2006 England, J. Kevin
486
UWAL
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
JSU132826 Jefferson 30 Mar 1985 Barber, J. Patrick
1381
JSU
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
TROY000029207 Crenshaw 09 Aug 2009 Diamond, Alvin R.
20862
TROY
Poncirus trifoliata (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
JSU132825 Jackson 15 Jul 1998 Brodeur, Kristin R.
1031
JSU
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
TROY000008794 Coffee 06 Oct 2006 Roberts, Carla
92
TROY
Poncirus trifoliata (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
AUA_ACC_2570 Tallapoosa 16 Apr 1965 Brown, Jimmy E.
AUA
Poncirus Trifoliata (L.) Raf.
TROY000008799 Pike 05 May 1999 Martin, Brian H.
94
TROY
Poncirus trifoliata (Linnaeus) Rafinesque
UWFP016470 Baldwin 12 Oct 1974 James R. Burkhalter
1958
UWFP
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.
JSU132820 Calhoun 3 May 1992 Spaulding, Daniel D.
1533
JSU
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
UWAL0044434 Baldwin 15 Jun 2009 Nation, N. Fred
1705
UWAL
Citrus trifoliata L.
JSU132832 Shelby 12 Oct 1996 Spaulding, Daniel D.
9410
JSU
Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
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