Toxicodendron vernix

Family:ANACARDIACEAE
Species:Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
Common Name:Poison Sumac; Thunderwood; Swamp Sumac
Habitat:Shrub of non-alluvial swamps, bogs, and seeps.
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Shrub
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:TOVE
Plant Notes:Poison Sumac is a native shrub or small tree in the Sumac family (Anacardiaceae). It occurs statewide in Alabama, though it is only infrequently collected. Poison Sumac grows in seeps, bogs, wet depressions, and non-alluvial swamps. It can occur as a single stem or a clump of stems, and grows between 3-25 feet in height. It infrequently branches, and the deciduous leaves are near the end of the stems. The bark is gray and has conspicuous lenticels. Young twigs are smooth and reddish in color. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound. The petioles and rachis are red in color. There are 7-13 oblong or elliptic leaflets. Leaflets are glabrous with entire margins. Leaves turn red or orange before falling in the autumn. Poison Sumac is often dioecious, with separate plants producing either male or female flowers. Some plants produce perfect flowers (with both anthers and pistils). Flowers are produced in axillary, drooping panicles. Each flower has five greenish-yellow petals. The fruit is a white drupe. All parts of the plant produce the volatile compound uroshiol. This causes the allergic reaction of swelling, itching, and a rash. This is the same compound found in the related species of Poison Ivy (Toxicodendron radicans (Linnaeus) Kuntze) and Poison Oak (Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller). Sensitive people do not have to come into direct contact with the plant. They can react to the compound on clothing, pets, or in the air. Poison Sumac differs from Sumacs in the genus Rhus by having leaflets with entire margins and having white drupes. Members of the genus Rhus have leaflets that are toothed and red fruit. Poison Sumac also tends to grow in wetter sites than the members of the genus Rhus.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native, OBL (NWI)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyANACARDIACEAE - Sumac/Cashew family
Genus Toxicodendron
Species Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze - Poison Sumac; Thunderwood; Swamp Sumac

Citation

Citation TOXICODENDRON VERNIX (Linnaeus) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 153. 1891.
Basionym: Rhus vernix Linnaeus 1753.
Type: Without data, Kalm s.n. (lectotype: LINN 378.8). Lectotypified by Reveal, in C. E. Jarvis, Order out of Chaos 795. 2007.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Rhus venenata Rhus venenata de Candolle, Prodr. 2: 68. 1825, nom. illegit.Rhus vernix Linnaeus 1753. 
Rhus vernicifera Rhus vernicifera Salisbury, Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 169. 1796, nom. illegit.Rhus vernix Linnaeus 1753. 
Toxicodendron pinnatum Toxicodendron pinnatum Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. 1768.Rhus vernix Linnaeus 1753. 
Rhus vernix Rhus vernix Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 265. 1753. Without data, Kalm s.n. (lectotype: LINN 378.8). Lectotypified by Reveal, in C. E. Jarvis, Order out of Chaos 795. 2007.

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Baldwin, Bibb, Butler, Calhoun, Choctaw, Clarke, Conecuh, Crenshaw, Escambia, Franklin, Hale, Henry, Houston, Jackson, Lee, Macon, Marengo, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery, Pike, Randolph, Russell, Sumter, Washington

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AMAL, AUA, JSU, NY, TROY, UNA, UNAF, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
UNA00046125 Houston 14 Jun 1993 John R. MacDonald
6270
UNA
Rhus vernix L.
UNA00053358 Escambia 5 May 2000 Robert R. Haynes
10043
UNA
Toxicodendron vernix (L.) Kuntze
AUA000027918 Lee 17 MAY 1960 NAIL, M. L.
AUA
TOXICODENDRON VERNIX (L.) KUNTZE
AUA000027922 Marengo 18 JUL 1969 SIMMONDS, E. P.
050
AUA
TOXICODENDRON VERNIX (L.) KUNTZE
NY02556627 Baldwin 02 May 1903 Samuel M. Tracy
8742
NY
Rhus vernix Linnaeus
TROY000014411 Butler 07 May 2008 Alvin R. Diamond
19216
TROY
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
TROY000042851 Montgomery 03 Jul 2015 Alvin R. Diamond
26541
TROY
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
TROY000000912 Crenshaw 07 Jul 2002 Alvin R. Diamond
13457
TROY
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
AMAL00005633 Monroe 09 May 2000 R. Kral
89649
AMAL
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
JSU143507 Randolph 24 May 1973 Kenneth E. Landers
s.n.
JSU
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
JSU116934 Escambia 4 Jun 1972 R. Kral
47226
JSU
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
AUA000027914 Conecuh 9 MAY 1986 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
2458
AUA
TOXICODENDRON VERNIX (L.) KUNTZE
AUA000027923 Monroe 1 JUL 1972 HYBART, MICHAEL G.
107
AUA
TOXICODENDRON VERNIX (L.) KUNTZE
UNA00048829 Henry 7 Apr 1997 John R. MacDonald
10131
UNA
Rhus vernix L.
AMAL00005636 Crenshaw 07 Jul 2002 A. R. Diamond
13457
AMAL
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
AMAL00019470 Calhoun 30 Oct 1993 L.M. Hodge
722
AMAL
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
AMAL00004060 Washington 05 Oct 2008 Brian R. Keener
4933
AMAL
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
AUA000027916 Jackson 13 MAY 2003 SPAULDING, DANIEL D.
11848
AUA
TOXICODENDRON VERNIX (L.) KUNTZE
TROY000015788 Washington 05 Oct 2008 Brian R. Keener
4933
TROY
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
JSU143508 Randolph 24 May 1973 Kenneth E. Landers
s.n.
JSU
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
JSU116933 Escambia 5 May 2000 Robert R. Haynes
10043
JSU
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
AUA000027915 Escambia 9 MAY 1987 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
3206
AUA
TOXICODENDRON VERNIX (L.) KUNTZE
AUA000027925 Russell 8 MAY 1974 JENKINS, J. D.
210
AUA
TOXICODENDRON VERNIX (L.) KUNTZE
AMAL00011598 Escambia 01 May 1958 H. E. Grelen
s.n.
AMAL
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
UNA00010686 Clarke 20 May 1989 Robert Burckhalter
1647
UNA
Toxicodendron vernix (L.) Kuntze
AUA000027921 Marengo 18 JUL 1969 MOORE, HAROLD D.
302-69
AUA
TOXICODENDRON VERNIX (L.) KUNTZE
TROY000013956 Jackson 13 May 2003 Daniel D. Spaulding
11848
TROY
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
UWAL0000103 Sumter 17 Jun 2000 Holland, Richard
AP00-15
UWAL
Toxicodendron vernix (L.) Kuntze
JSU116936 Randolph 28 Jul 1988 C. F. Nixon
4146
JSU
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
JSU116937 Randolph 24 May 1973 Kenneth E. Landers
s.n.
JSU
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
TROY000013955 Choctaw 03 Jul 1980 Robert Kral
65920
TROY
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
AUA000027920 Macon 6 MAY 1973 LODEN, M. S.
73-129
AUA
TOXICODENDRON VERNIX (L.) KUNTZE
UWAL0034484 Escambia 03 Oct 1994 Kral, R.
84245
UWAL
Toxicodendron vernix (L.) Kuntze
UNAF0000280 Lee 09 May 1962 Landers, K.E.
s.n.
UNAF
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
AUA000027913 Bibb 14 SEP 1981 GOLDEN, MICHAEL S.
S. N.
AUA
TOXICODENDRON VERNIX (L.) KUNTZE
AMAL00008046 Jackson 13 May 2003 D.D. Spaulding
11848
AMAL
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
USAM000001054 Mobile 04 May 1999 Michel G. Lelong
10,783
USAM
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
UWAL0000104 Washington 5 Oct 2008 Keener, Brian R.
4933
UWAL
Toxicodendron vernix (L.) Kuntze
USAM000001055 Mobile 03 Nov 1979 Roy Bradford
38704
USAM
Rhus vernix Linnaeus
AMAL00018172 Choctaw 03 Jul 1980 R. Kral
65920
AMAL
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
JSU116935 Lee 8 May 1964 Gene A. Bozarth
s.n.
JSU
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
AUA000027919 Lee 15 MAY 1960 TATUM, WALTER M.
AUA
TOXICODENDRON VERNIX (L.) KUNTZE
AUA000027924 Pike 6 MAY 1994 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
9131
AUA
TOXICODENDRON VERNIX (L.) KUNTZE
UNA00061107 Jackson 13 May 2003 D. D. Spaulding
11848
UNA
Toxicodendron vernix (L.) Kuntze
UNA00022626 Hale 15 Sep 1987 Robert R. Haynes
9251
UNA
Toxicodendron vernix (L.) Kuntze
AUA000027917 Lee 24 MAY 1955 MOORE, WILLIAM H.
AUA
TOXICODENDRON VERNIX (L.) KUNTZE
UWAL0032725 Franklin 27 May 2016 England, J. Kevin
6417
UWAL
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
JSU116938 Randolph 24 May 1973 Kenneth E. Landers
s.n.
JSU
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
TROY000000913 Pike 14 May 1991 Loren D. Powers
16
TROY
Toxicodendron vernix (Linnaeus) Kuntze
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