Toxicodendron pubescens

Family:ANACARDIACEAE
Species:Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
Common Name:Poison Oak
Habitat:Short colonial shrub (rarely vine-like) of sandhills, rock outcrops, and other xeric areas.
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Shrub
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:TOPU2
Plant Notes:Poison Oak is a native deciduous woody sub-shrub in the Sumac family (Anacardiaceae). It can be found throughout Alabama. Poison Oak occurs in scrub oak woods, in dry pine forests, in sandhills, and in other open xeric sites. It is and erect sub-shrub reaching 2-3 feet in height. On rare occasions it may appear vine-like. Poison Oak is rhizomatous and often forms large colonies. The young stems are green or reddish in color and slightly pubescent. Older stems are gray to brown in color and pubescent. Leaves are alternate, petiolate, and 3-foliate. The leaves are often crowded near the ends of the erect stems. Leaflets are ovate to elliptic in outline, with lobed or toothed margins. The leaflets often resemble the leaves of White Oak (Quercus alba). The terminal leaflet stalk is longer than the stalks of the lateral leaflets. The leaves are dark or yellowish green in color and pubescent on both surfaces. They are often thick and leathery in texture. The leaves turn bright red or orange before falling in the autumn. Flowers are produced in panicles from the axils of the leaves. The individual flowers have 5 greenish sepals, 5 yellow-green petals, and 5 stamens. The filaments of the stamens are green and the anthers are yellow. The fruit is a white drupe. The fruit is consumed by a wide variety of birds who spread the seed far and wide. Many people suffer allergic dermatitis from this plant. The urushiol in the plants sap causes an itchy blistering rash. This gave rise to the familiar saying “Leaflets three, let it be”. Infection can occur from direct contact with the plant (even in winter), cross contamination from clothing, garden tools, or camping gear that have come in contact with the plant, or from smoke when the plant is burned.—A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyANACARDIACEAE - Sumac/Cashew family
Genus Toxicodendron
Species Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller - Poison Oak

Citation

Citation TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. 1768.
Basionym: **
Type: Without data, Herb. Sloane 315: 86 (neotype: BM). Neotypified by Reveal, Taxon 40: 334. 1991.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Rhus acutiloba Rhus acutiloba Turczaninow, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 37: 612. 1863. TEXAS: Without data, Berlandier 2035 (lectotype: KW; isotypes: G-DC, GH, MO).
Rhus pubescens Rhus pubescens (Miller) Farwell, Rep. (Annual) Commiss. Parks & Boulev. Detroit 11: 73. 1900, non Thunberg 1794, nec Ecklon & Zeyher 1836.Toxicodendron pubescens Miller 1768. 
Rhus quercifolia Rhus quercifolia (Michaux) Steudel ex B. L. Robinson & Fernald, in A. Gray, Manual, ed. 7. 1908, non Goeppert 1855.Rhus toxicodendron Linnaeus, var. quercifolia Michaux 1803. 
Rhus radicans var. toxicodendron Rhus radicans Linnaeus, var. toxicodendron (Linnaeus) Persoon, Syn. Pl. 1: 325. 1805.Rhus toxicodendron Linnaeus 1753. 
Rhus toxicarium Rhus toxicarium Salisbury, Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 170. 1796, nom. illegit.Rhus toxicodendron Linnaeus 1753. 
Rhus toxicodendron var. quercifolia Rhus toxicodendron Linnaeus, var. quercifolia Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 183. 1803. Virginie et Carolines, without data, Michaux s.n. (lectotype: P). Lectotypified by Gillis, Rhodora 73: 402. 1971.
Rhus toxicodendron var. quercifolia Rhus toxicodendron Linnaeus, var. quercifolia Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 183. 1803. Virginie et Carolines, without data, Michaux s.n. (lectotype: P). Lectotypified by Gillis, Rhodora 73: 402. 1971.
Toxicodendron compactum Toxicodendron compactum Greene, Leafl. Bot. OBserv. Crit. 1: 126. 1905. VIRGINIA: Carroll Co.: Woodlawn, Aug 1899, Hunter s.n. (holotype: US; isotype: GH).
Toxicodendron monticola Toxicodendron monticola Greene, Leafl. Bot. OBserv. Crit. 1: 126. 1905. GEORGIA: Lookout Mountain, Jul 1898, Ruth 356 (holotype: US; isotypes: MO, NDG, NY).
Toxicodendron quercifolium Toxicodendron quercifolium (Michaux) Greene, Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 127. 1905.Rhus toxicodendron Linnaeus, var. quercifolia Michaux 1803. 
Toxicodendron toxicarium var. leiocarpum Toxicodendron toxicarium Gillis, var. leiocarpum (Fernald) C. F. Reed, Phytologia 63: 411. 1987.Rhus toxicodendron Linnaeus, forma leiocarpa Fernald 1941. 
Toxicodendron toxicarium var. elobatum Toxicodendron toxicarium Gillis, var. elobatum (Fernald) C. F. Reed, Phytologia 63: 411. 1987.Rhus toxicodendron Linnaeus, forma elobata Fernald 1941. 
Rhus toxicodendron Rhus toxicodendron Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 266. 1753. TYPE: Without data (lectotype: LINN 378.16, left). Lectotypified by Fernald, Rhodora 43: 497. 1941; Gillis, Rhodora 73: 402. 1971.
Toxicodendron toxicarium Toxicodendron toxicarium Gillis, Rhodora 73: 402. 1971.Rhus toxicarium Salisbury 1796, nom. illegit.; Rhus toxicodendron Linnaeus 1753. 
Toxicodendron toxicodendron Toxicodendron toxicodendron (Linnaeus) Britton, in Britton & A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U.S., ed. 2. 2: 484. 1913, nom. inadmiss.Rhus toxicodendron Linnaeus 1753. 

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Barbour, Bibb, Blount, Bullock, Butler, Calhoun, Chambers, Cherokee, Chilton, Clay, Cleburne, Coffee, Conecuh, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, Dallas, DeKalb, Elmore, Escambia, Etowah, Fayette, Hale, Houston, Jackson, Jefferson, Lee, Macon, Marshall, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Pike, Randolph, Russell, Shelby, St. Clair, Sumter, Talladega, Tallapoosa, Tuscaloosa

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AMAL, AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
AUA000027810 Cleburne 4 MAY 1957 ADAMS, W. H.
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
AMAL00019965 Monroe 25 May 2011 T. Wayne Barger
154
AMAL
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
JSU116844 Randolph 20 Jul 1986 C. F. Nixon
2405
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
TROY000035081 Bullock 19 Apr 2012 Bailee Dykes
552
TROY
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AUA000027845 Tallapoosa 3 MAY 1979 MERRILL, L. E.
099
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
UNA00029135 Fayette 20 Sep 1997 Robert R. Haynes
9602
UNA
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Mill.
JSU116848 St. Clair 12 May 1983 R. D. Whetstone
13196
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
TROY000014450 Pike 04 Aug 2008 Alvin R. Diamond
19714
TROY
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
UWAL0000105 Dallas 13 May 2009 Keener, Brian R.
5259
UWAL
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Mill.
AUA000027832 Macon 15 APR 1967 DENT, D. M.
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
JSU116847 St. Clair 12 Jul 1969 Jerry Ellard
s.n.
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AMAL00005629 Calhoun 03 May 1989 D. Spaulding
148
AMAL
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
UWAL0011771 Autauga 03 May 2013 Keener, Brian R.
7801
UWAL
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AUA000027826 Lee 6 AUG 1969 HAYES, J. L.
091
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
AUA000027817 Lee 10 MAY 1949 RICHARDS, HELEN
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
JSU145273 Calhoun 17 Jul 1992 F. Hutchinson
613
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
USAM000001050 Mobile 05 May 1968 D. L. Scott and B. E. Wofford
173
USAM
Rhus toxicodendron Linnaeus
UNA00022594 Tuscaloosa s.d. Eugene A. Smith
s.n.
UNA
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Mill.
AUA000027836 Monroe 22 APR 1981 O'HALLORAN, K.
090
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
AUA000027838 Morgan 13 MAY 1972 WILLIAMS, SUSAN
148
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
JSU116853 Talladega 18 May 1984 R. D. Whetstone
14014
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AMAL00016076 Butler 24 Apr 2008 A. R. Diamond
19066
AMAL
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
JSU116841 Jackson 18 May 1999 Kristin Brodeur
1794
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AUA000027814 Dale 23 JUN 1991 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
7469
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
TROY000014410 Crenshaw 26 May 2008 Alvin R. Diamond
19338
TROY
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AUA000027840 Pike 19 APR 1988 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
4481
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
JSU116851 Talladega 12 Jun 1980 J. Carlisle
s.n.
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
TROY000014417 Escambia 01 May 1958 H. E. Grelen
5/1-29
TROY
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
UNA00059527 Conecuh 4 Jul 2002 Alvin R. Diamond
13443
UNA
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Mill.
AUA000027815 Houston 25 JUL 1969 KRAL, ROBERT
35765
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
AUA000027818 Lee 5 APR 1964 ANONYMOUS
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
JSU116846 Randolph 20 Jul 1986 C. F. Nixon
2405
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
TROY000000876 Coffee 12 Apr 2000 Brian H. Martin
580
TROY
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AUA000027807 Chambers 11 JUL 1969 MOORE, HAROLD D.
257
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
UNA00060132 Hale 4 Jun 2003 Robert R. Haynes
10393
UNA
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Mill.
JSU116840 DeKalb 15 May 1996 R. D. Whetstone
17510
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
UNA00069048 Barbour 17 Jul 2008 Kaleb K. Dyess
12
UNA
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Mill.
UWAL0011364 Sumter 11 Sep 2011 Keener, Brian R.
6702
UWAL
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
JSU116832 Autauga 30 May 1970 R. Kral
39358
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AUA000027813 Crenshaw 1 JUN 1996 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
10289
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
TROY000000877 Conecuh 04 Jul 2002 Alvin R. Diamond
13443
TROY
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AMAL00007344 Bibb 27 Apr 2003 D.D. Spaulding
11773
AMAL
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
TROY000013950 Hale 04 Jun 2003 Robert R. Haynes
10393
TROY
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AUA000027835 Macon 12 MAY 1973 HOLLIS, JAMES B.
155
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
AUA000027806 Baldwin 15 MAY 2008 BARGER, T. WAYNE
PERD-362
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
USAM000001049 Mobile 04 May 1968 D. L. Scott and B. E. Wofford
173
USAM
Rhus toxicodendron Linnaeus
UNA00061166 Bibb 27 Apr 2003 D. D. Spaulding
11773
UNA
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Mill.
AUA000027830 Lee 7 MAY 1970 MURCHISON, GROVER R.
136
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
UNA00022596 Calhoun 7 May 1979 Robert R. Haynes
7113
UNA
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Mill.
JSU116852 Talladega 18 May 1984 R. D. Whetstone
14014
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
UNA00017688 Marshall 29 Apr 1972 R. Kral
45943
UNA
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Mill.
JSU116833 Bibb 7 Jun 1999 K. R. Brodeur
1987
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AUA000027837 Montgomery 21 APR 1989 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
5842
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
TROY000014409 Butler 24 Apr 2008 Alvin R. Diamond
19066
TROY
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AUA000027811 Conecuh 11 JUL 1987 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
3434
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
JSU116843 Lee 20 Apr 1964 Gene A. Bozarth
s.n.
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
TROY000013949 Bibb 27 Apr 2003 Daniel D. Spaulding
11773
TROY
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
TROY000013951 Tallapoosa 27 Apr 2006 Terry Wayne Barger
149
TROY
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AUA000027842 Russell 9 MAY 1979 KEYSER, J. T.
101
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
AUA000027809 Clay 6 MAY 1976 RUTLAND, DAVID W.
2557
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
JSU116835 Calhoun 1 May 1956 Bruce Roberts
s.n.
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
USAM000001053 Mobile 23 Apr 1968 D. L. Scott and B. E. Wofford
129
USAM
Rhus toxicodendron Linnaeus
AUA000027827 Lee 3 OCT 1971 LANDERS, SUSAN
089
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
JSU142860 Etowah 05 May 1994 L. M. Hodge
1366
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
TROY000043956 Houston 09 Jun 2016 Alvin R. Diamond
27471
TROY
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
JSU116839 Clay 23 Aug 1982 Melanie G. Bussey
429
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AUA000027834 Macon 24 JUN 1966 DALY, JR., ROBERT
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
SAMF0002887 Jefferson 20 May 1953 Knight, R.
s.n.
SAMF
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
JSU116842 Jefferson 17 May 1984 J. P. Barber
558
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AUA000027812 Covington 15 APR 2009 HANSEN, CURTIS J.
3702
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
JSU116850 St. Clair 12 May 1983 C. M. De Fiori
066
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AUA000027828 Lee 29 JUN 1971 HAYDEN, III, C. J.
063
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
AUA000028185 Cherokee 10 APR 2012 BARGER, T. WAYNE
SP511
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
JSU116845 Randolph 28 Jul 1988 C. F. Nixon
4090
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
UNA00054352 Blount 6 Jul 1998 Brian R. Keener
1180
UNA
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Mill.
AUA000027833 Macon 9 MAY 1969 MOORE, HAROLD D.
207-69
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
UNA00053354 Escambia 5 May 2000 Robert R. Haynes
10039
UNA
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Mill.
JSU116834 Bibb 18 May 1984 R. D. Whetstone
13961
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
UNA00017556 Russell 1 May 1972 R. Kral
46092
UNA
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Mill.
TROY000014768 Barbour 17 Jul 2008 Kaleb K. Dyess
12
TROY
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
UWAL0011074 Bullock 19 Apr 2012 Dykes, Bailee
0552
UWAL
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AUA000027808 Chilton 1 OCT 1993 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
8810
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
TROY000037903 Houston 30 Apr 2013 Alvin R. Diamond
23983
TROY
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
UWAL0035920 Blount 24 Aug 2015 Anderson, Kelly
0914
UWAL
Toxicodendron pubescens Mill.
TROY000016643 Cherokee 25 Apr 2007 Terry Wayne Barger
21
TROY
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AUA000027831 Lee 2 APR 1963 KEYES, JOHN W.
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
AUA000027819 Lee 7 MAY 1969 SEAY, J. R.
115
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
JSU116849 St. Clair 12 May 1983 C. F. Nixon
177
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
USAM000001052 Mobile 27 Apr 1967 Michel G. Lelong
3081
USAM
Rhus toxicodendron Linnaeus
AUA000027841 Russell 4 MAY 1973 LYNN, DAVID
119
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
UWAL0013718 Houston 30 Apr 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
23983
UWAL
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
TROY000041048 Autauga 03 May 2013 Brian R. Keener
7801
TROY
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
TROY000032302 Dallas 13 May 2009 Brian R. Keener
5259
TROY
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
16392AUA_ACC Cleburne 6 SEP 1967 DEMAREE, DELZIE
56374
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
TROY000000878 Dale 12 Apr 2000 Tiffany Pennington
531
TROY
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
JSU116836 Calhoun 20 Jul 1969 Jan Cofield
s.n.
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AMAL00010226 Randolph 28 Jul 1988 C.F. Nixon
4090
AMAL
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
TROY000045663 Autauga 11 Apr 2017 Matthew Parker
606
TROY
Toxicodendron pubescens P.Miller
AUA000027829 Lee 21 APR 1963 HAYES, A. W.
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
AUA000027844 Tallapoosa 17 APR 1976 RUTLAND, DAVID W.
2184
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
TROY000039502 Elmore 14 Jul 2012 Robert Pullen
176
TROY
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
USAM000001051 Mobile 23 Apr 1968 D. L. Scott and B. E. Wofford
129
USAM
Rhus toxicodendron Linnaeus
UNA00022598 Montgomery 26 Apr 1960 James C. Wilkes
s.n.
UNA
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Mill.
AMAL00005635 Conecuh 04 Jul 2002 A. R. Diamond
13443
AMAL
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
JSU143501 Calhoun 11 Jul 1969 Jan E. Payne
s.n.
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
JSU139580 Escambia 05 May 2000 Robert R. Haynes
10039
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AUA000027816 Lee 24 APR 1949 CUNNINGHAM, HUGH B.
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
SAMF0002886 Shelby 07 May 1969 Barclay
s.n.
SAMF
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
JSU116837 Clay 21 Sep 1993 Lesley M. Hodge
592
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AUA000027839 Pike 5 SEP 1988 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
5475
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
JSU116838 Clay 21 Apr 1995 J. M. Ballard
5481
JSU
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
AUA000027843 Russell 1 JUL 2002 GIL, GLENDA
2001-278
AUA
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS P. MILL
UNA00066037 Russell 7 May 1979 Becky Banker
s.n.
UNA
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Mill.
AMAL00005630 Calhoun 08 May 1988 K. E. Snowden
318
AMAL
Toxicodendron pubescens P. Miller
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