Polygala lutea

Family:POLYGALACEAE
Species:Polygala lutea Linnaeus
Common Name:Orange Milkwort; Candyweed; Bog Bachelor's Button
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Biennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:POLU
Plant Notes:Orange Milkwort is an herbaceous annual or biennial in the Milkwort family (Polygalaceae). It is found in the southern half of Alabama. Orange Milkwort occurs in moist pine or hardwood forests, in bogs, in roadside ditches, and in seeps. It is an annual or biennial with a tap root. There are one to several stems from each base. The stems are from 4-6 inches in length, and may be branched in the upper half. The stems are erect to ascending, green in color, and glabrous. Leaves are basal and cauline. The basal leaves from an irregular rosette that may not be present at flowering. Stem leaves are alternate, obovate to spatulate in outline, glabrous, and entire. The leaves are almost succulent to the touch. Flowers are produced in dense terminal head-like racemes. An alternative common name for this species is “Bog Cheetos”. The individual flowers have 3 small sepals and two larger petal-like sepals (wings) that are bright orange in color. The 3 petals are united into a tube with a crest of 4 lobes. The fruit is a capsule. The seed have an elaiosome (fleshy often oily appendage) that is an adaptation for ant dispersal of the seed. The species name for this plant (lutea) means yellow. This may seem odd for a plant with bright orange flowers. However, the flowers turn yellow when dried and Linnaeus described the species from dried pressed material. Orange Milkwort is rarely offered for sale by nurseries that specialize in bog plants. It requires a wet acidic soil and full sun.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyPOLYGALACEAE - Milkwort family
Genus Polygala
Species Polygala lutea Linnaeus - Orange Milkwort; Candyweed; Bog Bachelor's Button

Citation

Citation POLYGALA LUTEA Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 705. 1753.
Basionym: **
Type: VIRGINIA: Without data, Kalm s.n. (lectotype: LINN 822.39). Lectotypified by R. R. Smith & D. B. Ward, Sida 6: 302. 1976.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Pilostaxis lutea Pilostaxis lutea (Linnaeus) Small, Man. S.E. Fl. 774, 1505. 1933.Polygala lutea Linnaeus 1753. 
Polygala lutea var. elatior Polygala lutea Linnaeus, var. elatior Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 54. 1803, nom. inadmiss.Polygala lutea Linnaeus 1753. 
Polygala lutea var. paucifolia Polygala lutea Linnaeus, var. paucifolia Rafinesque, New Fl. 4: 90. 1838 ("1836").  
Polygala pseudosenega Polygala pseudosenega Bertoloni, Mem. Reale Sci. Ist. Bologna 5: 440. 1854.  
Pylostachya lutea    

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Barbour, Bullock, Butler, Clarke, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, Escambia, Geneva, Houston, Lee, Macon, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery, Pike, Russell, Washington

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: ALNHS, AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1950 - 1980

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
UWAL0001861 Escambia 19 Jun 2010 Davenport, L.J.
4372
UWAL
Polygala lutea L.
TROY000007885 Escambia 05 Jan 1993 Scott, Billy
4
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
SAMF0000969 Baldwin 06 Aug 2010 Davenport, Lawrence J.
4452
SAMF
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_34666 Covington 18 Apr 1979 Crawford, Lloyd C.
S.N.
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
SAMF0007349 Washington 16 Apr 2021 Davenport, L.J.
6852
SAMF
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
UNA00009756 Mobile 20 Mar 1965 Nelson, Walter R.
55
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
UNA00009702 Baldwin 11 Apr 1952 Chermock, Ralph L.
s.n.
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
SAMF0000968 Covington 19 Jun 2010 Davenport, Lawrence J.
4353
SAMF
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_55590 Russell 11 Jun 1981 Stutts, John G.
1108
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
TROY000033619 Barbour 20 Aug 2011 Morrison, Derek
13
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_12909 Escambia 14 May 1966 Woodruff, John M.
S.N.
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
AUA_ACC_13615 Baldwin 29 Apr 1967 Dent, D.M.
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
UNA00058039 Baldwin 26 May 2002 Keener, Brian R.
2076
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
AUA_ACC_3207 Baldwin 18 Apr 1953 Bennett, Orus L.
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
UNA00009726 Pike 12 May 1960 Taunton, Bertha Ann
s.n.
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
UNA00009706 Mobile 27 Mar 1965 Deramus, Rebecca
D 320
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
AUA_ACC_20714 Houston 30 Jul 1970 Moore, Harold D.
518
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
AUA_ACC_17325 Macon 8 Aug 1969 Owens, James R.
131
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
JSU138887 Baldwin 22 Aug 1968 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
SAMF0000972 Mobile 06 Apr 1991 Davenport, Lawrence J.
2750
SAMF
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
USAM000012929 Mobile 23 Apr 1968 Scott, D.L.
120
USAM
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
UWAL0005787 Baldwin 26 May 2006 Keener, Brian R.
2913
UWAL
Polygala lutea L.
UNA00009791 Mobile 28 Apr 1956 Patton, E.G.
15
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
AUA_ACC_17324 Escambia 25 Jul 1969 Simonds, E.P.
87
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
TROY000035558 Bullock 27 Jun 2012 Dykes, Bailee
956
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_47330 Barbour 17 Jul 1981 Gates, William R.
66
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
ALNHS00007257 Baldwin 18 May 2021 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#5505
ALNHS
Polygala lutea L.
UNA00009721 Mobile s.d. Mohr, Charles
s.n.
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
AUA_ACC_14878 Baldwin 3 May 1969 Roberson, B.J.
141
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
TROY000007883 Dale 09 Aug 1999 Pennington, Tiffany
50
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_11696 Baldwin 29 Apr 1967 Barrick, William E.
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
UWAL0043518 Baldwin 01 Jun 1993 Walker, M.M.
43
UWAL
Polygala lutea L.
TROY000039813 Mobile 04 Jun 1998 C., D.G
10
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_60776 Baldwin 26 Jul 1969 Moore, Harold D.
519-69
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
AUA_ACC_70268 Covington 19 May 2009 Hansen, Curtis J.
3985
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
JSU138890 Mobile 16 May 1974 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
UNA00009771 Mobile 08 Apr 1950 Crawford, Lloyd C.
847
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
USAM000012935 Mobile 02 Jul 2003 Pate, Ab R.
47
USAM
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_42403 Covington 27 Jun 1972 Hybart, Michael G.
77
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
TROY000007881 Covington 14 Apr 1997 Holmes, Jeanese
l-7
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_37953 Baldwin 27 Apr 1981 Jones, T.R.
S.N.
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
JSU138883 Baldwin 28 Sep 1985 Whetstone, R. David
15265
JSU
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
UNA00009726 Pike 12 May 1960 Taunton, Bertha Ann
s.n.
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
AUA_ACC_48929 Butler 17 Jun 1988 Diamond, Alvin R.
5040
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
UWAL0037105 Baldwin 30 Sep 2017 Bryson, Charles T.
25441
UWAL
Polygala lutea L.
UNA00009746 Houston 12 Jul 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
541
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
USAM000012936 Baldwin 04 May 1980 Ewing, Elvin G. Jr.
s.n.
USAM
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
TROY000007876 Baldwin 12 May 2000 Kral, Robert
89754
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
TROY000007887 Pike 03 May 2002 Diamond, Alvin R.
13118
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_37554 Mobile 14 Sep 1981 Henderson, T.
527
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
ALNHS00004921 Covington 09 May 2017 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#3053
ALNHS
Polygala lutea L.
TROY000007880 Covington 09 Jun 2002 Diamond, Alvin R.
13278
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_3875 Covington 3 Jun 1965 Waters, Robert E.
S.N.
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
JSU138892 Washington 13 Sep 1997 Whetstone, R. David
18703
JSU
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
SAMF0000967 Escambia 19 Jun 2010 Davenport, Lawrence J.
4372
SAMF
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
USAM000012934 Mobile 23 Apr 1968 Scott, D.L.
120
USAM
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
SAMF0007610 Washington 06 May 2021 Davenport, L.J.
6869
SAMF
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
UNA00009796 Washington 15 Apr 1950 Segars, Charles B.
198
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
UWAL0011478 Bullock 27 Jun 2012 Dykes, Bailee
956
UWAL
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
TROY000007884 Dale 01 May 1993 Richters, Renate
2
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_45094 Mobile 8 Apr 1986 Malo, Lorne K.
S.N.
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
TROY000007878 Bullock 04 Sep 2003 Diamond, Alvin R.
14116
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_5880 Baldwin 27 Jul 1968 Willis, Robert L.
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
USAM000012932 Mobile 07 May 1968 LeLong, Michel G.
4478
USAM
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
UNA00009761 Washington 05 Aug 1980 Haynes, Robert R.
8164
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
AUA_ACC_5321 Baldwin 11 May 1962 Bass, M.H.
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
UNA00009791 Mobile 28 Apr 1956 Patton, E.G.
15
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
TROY000007879 Butler 23 Aug 2007 Diamond, Alvin R.
17960
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_20516 Baldwin 27 Aug 1969 Moore, Harold D.
671-69
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
AUA_ACC_37138 Covington 9 Jun 1981 O'Halloran, K.
180
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
JSU138886 Baldwin 22 Aug 1968 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
USAM000012931 Mobile 04 May 1968 Scott, D.L.
174
USAM
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_32530 Covington 6 Apr 1974 Jenkins, J.D.
81
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
UNA00009694 Baldwin 24 May 1980 Davenport, Lawrence J.
1890
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
AUA_ACC_45994 Covington 11 Jun 1971 Kral, Robert
43225
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
ALNHS00000255 Mobile 31 May 1998 Spaulding, Daniel D.
10,233a
ALNHS
Polygala lutea L.
AUA_ACC_8906 Crenshaw 30 Apr 1965 Gamble, Tom
60
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
JSU138884 Baldwin 26 Sep 1985 Whetstone, R. David
15253
JSU
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
UNA00009699 Covington 29 Sep 1979 Haynes, Robert R.
7577
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
AUA_ACC_13253 Baldwin 29 Apr 1967 Rankin, H.Taylor
140
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
TROY000007875 Baldwin 11 May 2005 Hansen, Curtis J.
1744
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
SAMF0000970 Baldwin 10 Apr 2005 Davenport, Lawrence J.
3164
SAMF
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
UWAL0005788 Covington 18 Jun 2009 Diamond, Alvin R.
20779
UWAL
Polygala lutea L.
TROY000044109 Geneva 08 Aug 2016 Byrd, Cameron
35
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_20186 Geneva 25 Jul 1969 Moore, Harold D.
419-69
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
UNA00064826 Washington 14 Aug 2006 Keener, Brian R.
3027
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
SAMF0003194 Baldwin 04 Jun 2015 Davenport, Lawrence J.
5854
SAMF
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
UWAL0019691 Montgomery 20 Jun 1992 Kral, Robert
80960
UWAL
Polygala lutea Walt.
UNA00009716 Baldwin 02 Jun 1970 Clonts, Jerry A.
796
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
USAM000012933 Baldwin 04 Oct 1975 LeLong, Michel G.
8769
USAM
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_53152 Crenshaw 4 Jun 1989 Diamond, Alvin R.
5908
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
TROY000022587 Butler 07 May 2008 Diamond, Alvin R.
19219
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
JSU138889 Mobile 29 Mar 1992 Spaulding, Daniel D.
1230
JSU
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
UNA00009731 Mobile 28 Aug 1951 Chermock, Ralph L.
s.n.
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
SAMF0000971 Mobile 30 Sep 1990 Davenport, Lawrence J.
2739
SAMF
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
UWAL0014720 Washington 25 May 2014 England, J. Kevin
4872
UWAL
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
TROY000022228 Autauga 26 May 2006 Spaulding, Daniel D.
12452
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
UNA00009716 Baldwin 2 Jun 1970 Clonts, Jerry A.
796
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
AUA_ACC_17323 Baldwin 26 Jul 1969 Ellis, H.C.
076
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
UNA00064964 Baldwin 26 May 2006 Keener, Brian R.
2913
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
AUA_ACC_46034 Baldwin 28 May 1987 Diamond, Alvin R.
3261
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
UNA00009711 Baldwin 21 Oct 1973 Wright, D.
176
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
UNA00058318 Pike 03 May 2002 Diamond, Alvin R.
13118
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
AUA_ACC_18847 Washington 9 Sep 1970 Moore, Harold D.
1036
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
AUA_ACC_65910 Baldwin 26 Jun 2006 Diamond, Alvin R.
16571
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
UWAL0033764 Geneva 12 Apr 2015 Keener, Brian R.
8745
UWAL
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
UNA00009741 Mobile 23 Apr 1950 Crawford, Lloyd C.
1021
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
USAM000012937 Baldwin 30 Apr 1977 LeLong, Michel G.
9688
USAM
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_63137 Bullock 4 Sep 2003 Diamond, Alvin R.
14116
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
TROY000028319 Covington 18 Jun 2009 Diamond, Alvin R.
20779
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
JSU138888 Mobile 31 May 1998 Spaulding, Daniel D.
10233a
JSU
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
UNA00009756 Mobile 20 Mar 1965 Nelson, Walter R.
55
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
AUA_ACC_65692 Crenshaw 13 May 2006 Diamond, Alvin R.
16375
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
UWAL0005789 Washington 14 Aug 2006 Keener, Brian R.
3027
UWAL
Polygala lutea L.
UNA00009680 Covington 08 Aug 1979 Davenport, Lawrence J.
1504
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
SAMF0000966 Autauga 18 May 2011 Davenport, Lawrence J.
4701
SAMF
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
TROY000007877 Baldwin 26 Jun 2006 Diamond, Alvin R.
16571
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
JSU138882 Baldwin 11 Aug 1993 Spaulding, Daniel D.
4311
JSU
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
UNA00009736 Mobile 28 Aug 1951 Williams, B.C.
s.n.
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
AUA_ACC_53913 Bullock 29 May 1993 Diamond, Alvin R.
8647
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
JSU138885 Baldwin 21 Oct 1973 Pringle, G.
183
JSU
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
UNA00009711 Baldwin 21 Oct 1973 Wright, D.
176
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
UWAL0010780 Butler 29 Apr 2012 Diamond, Alvin R.
22987
UWAL
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_70361 Covington 20 Jun 2008 Hansen, Curtis J.
3345
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
JSU138891 Mobile 16 May 1974 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
UNA00009679 Barbour 24 Jun 1950 Crawford, Lloyd C.
1266
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
USAM000012930 Mobile 04 May 1968 Scott, D.L.
174
USAM
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_3208 Baldwin 20 Apr 1923 J, G.R.
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
TROY000007886 Monroe 27 May 2001 Kral, Robert
91173
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_45995 Covington 11 Jun 1971 Kral, Robert
43224
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
ALNHS00000293 Mobile 04 Jun 1998 Crow, D.G.
s.n.
ALNHS
Polygala lutea L.
AUA_ACC_23937 Barbour 19 Jun 1971 Folsom, James P.
009
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
UWAL0038446 Mobile 06 Apr 1974 LeLong, Michel G.
7558
UWAL
Polygala lutea L.
UNA00009700 Mobile 18 Nov 1978 Haynes, Robert R.
6986
UNA
Polygala lutea L.
AUA_ACC_65503 Baldwin 11 May 2005 Hansen, Curtis J.
1744
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
TROY000007882 Crenshaw 13 May 2006 Diamond, Alvin R.
16375
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_37201 Clarke 20 May 1981 Henderson, T.
94
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
ALNHS00003300 Washington 12 May 2015 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#1848
ALNHS
Polygala lutea L.
AUA_ACC_3209 Lee 23 Apr 1949 Cunningham, Hugh B.
S.N.
AUA
Polygala Lutea L.
TROY000043953 Houston 09 Jun 2016 Diamond, Alvin R.
27475
TROY
Polygala lutea Linnaeus
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