Epifagus virginiana

Family:OROBANCHACEAE
Species:Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
Common Name:Beechdrops
Habitat:Under Fagus grandifolia.
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Tree
Duration:Annual
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:**
Plant Notes:Beechdrops is a native annual in the Broomrape family (Orobanchaceae). It can be found throughout Alabama. Beechdrops is a holoparasite of American Beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart). It lacks chlorophyll and depends entirely on its connections to the roots of Beech trees to survive (obligate parasite). The roots of the Beech tree release chemicals into the soil that trigger the germination of Beechdrop seed. The seedling grows a hastorium that penetrates the roots of the Beech tree and allows the parasite to obtain water and nutrients from its host. The seedling develops into a tuber that remains underground and connected to the roots of the Beech tree. Beechdrops are not known to cause significant harm to the host. In late summer and fall the tuber develops stiff erect stems that are 6-15 inches in height. The stems are branched and glabrous. Stems are yellowish-brown or purple streaked in color and have no chlorophyll. Leaves are reduced to small alternate brown scales along the stem. Flowers are produced in the axils of the scale leaves. The stems produce two types of flowers: cleistogamous flowers that self-pollinate and never open, and tubular chasmogamous flowers that are often sterile. Cleistogamous flowers are bud-shaped and the most abundant. They are usually located on the lower portions of the stems. Chasmogamous are produced near the tips of the branches and are purple and cream in color. They are tubular with 4 small lobes. The fruit is a capsule with many small seed. The dried stems of Beechdrops become dark brown in color and semi-woody. They may remain visible under the Beech tree well into the next year.—A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native, G5 (Global Rank)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyOROBANCHACEAE - Broomrape family
Genus Epifagus
Species Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram - Beechdrops

Citation

Citation EPIFAGUS VIRGINIANA (Linnaeus) W. P. C. Barton, Comp. Fl. Philadelph. 2: 50. 1818.
Basionym: Orobanche virginiana Linnaeus 1753.
Type: VIRGINIA: Without data, Clayton 604 (lectotype: BM). Lectotypified by J. M. Gillett, Rhodora 61: 61. 1959.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Epifagus americana Epifagus americana Nuttall, Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 2: 60. 1818, nom. illegit.Orobanche virginiana Linnaeus 1753. 
Mylanche virginiana Mylanche virginiana (Linnaeus) Wallroth, Orobanches Gen. Diask. 76. 1825.Orobanche virginiana Linnaeus 1753. 
Orobanche virginiana Orobanche virginiana Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 633. 1753. VIRGINIA: Without data, Clayton 604 (lectotype: BM). Lectotypified by J. M. Gillett, Rhodora 61: 61. 1959.
Leptamnium virginianum Leptamnium virginianum (Linnaeus) Rafinesque, Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. 2: 267. 1818.Orobanche virginiana Linnaeus 1753. 

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Barbour, Bibb, Blount, Bullock, Butler, Calhoun, Cherokee, Choctaw, Clay, Cleburne, Conecuh, Covington, Crenshaw, Cullman, Dale, Dallas, DeKalb, Escambia, Etowah, Geneva, Hale, Houston, Jackson, Jefferson, Lamar, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Lee, Lowndes, Macon, Marengo, Marion, Marshall, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Pike, Randolph, Shelby, St. Clair, Sumter, Talladega, Tallapoosa, Tuscaloosa, Walker, Wilcox, Winston

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: ALNHS, AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, UWAL, UWFP

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1949 - 1985

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
AUA_ACC_25527 Crenshaw 23 Oct 1973 Breece, G.A.
S.N.
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
JSU139685 Shelby 10 Sep 1982 Whetstone, R. David
12362
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
UWAL0044115 Baldwin 21 Feb 2002 Larsen, H.S.
1030
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (L.) Barton
JSU139678 Marshall 30 May 1992 Spaulding, Daniel D.
1938
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
UWAL0014794 Bullock 14 Sep 2012 Dykes, Bailee
1245
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
AUA000031098 Covington 9 Feb 2010 Hansen, Curtis J.
4581
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
JSU139471 Blount 13 Oct 1984 Nixon, Christopher F.
906
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
TROY000028744 Sumter 17 Sep 2008 Keener, Brian R.
4875
TROY
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
JSU139665 Cleburne 15 Nov 1984 Smith, P.L.
s.n.
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
AUA000041267 Covington 22 Nov 2013 Hansen, Curtis J.
5875
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
UWAL0005566 Morgan 21 Sep 2008 England, J. Kevin
1168
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
JSU139689 Winston 18 Sep 1994 Spaulding, Daniel D.
6429
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
AUA_ACC_44569 Autauga 27 Sep 1975 Dupree, W.G.
4
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
AUA_ACC_43469 Conecuh 28 Aug 1985 Diamond, Alvin R.
1636
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
JSU139677 Marion 04 Oct 1980 Whetstone, R. David
10382
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
AUA_ACC_64193 Jackson 18 Sep 1998 Brodeur, K.R.
1413 & 19898
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
UNA00042642 Walker 27 Oct 1984 Horn, Charles N.
593
UNA
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
UWAL0038067 Calhoun 24 Aug 2017 Spaulding, Daniel D.
14943
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
JSU139684 St. Clair 25 May 1973 Whetstone, R. David
DW-1117
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
UWAL0005568 Sumter 26 Feb 2009 England, J. Kevin
1626
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
UWFP014186 Escambia 30 Dec 1986 James R. Burkhalter
10530
UWFP
Epifagus virginiana (L.) Barton
JSU139666 Cleburne 15 Nov 1984 Nixon, Christopher F.
1009
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
TROY000048642 Autauga 05 Oct 2017 Parker, Matthew R.
1367
TROY
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
JSU139674 Jackson 11 Sep 1994 Spaulding, Daniel D.
6282
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
UWAL0017200 Lawrence 15 Oct 2006 England, J. Kevin
0566
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
JSU139671 DeKalb 29 Apr 1974 Atkinson, Tim A.
154
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
SAMF0004920 Winston 22 Oct 1988 Collier, Stephen
99
SAMF
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Barton
JSU139663 Cleburne 21 Mar 1994 Spaulding, Daniel D.
5145
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
JSU139477 Calhoun 25 Sep 1986 Lawler, Carol L.
1276
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
AUA_ACC_53164 Dale 29 Nov 1991 Diamond, Alvin R.
7860
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
JSU139687 Talladega 09 May 1973 Whetstone, R. David
RDW-1384
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
UWAL0046413 Autauga 05 Oct 2017 Parker, Matthew R.
1367
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
UWFP014185 Baldwin 14 Oct 2002 James R. Burkhalter
18835
UWFP
Epifagus virginiana (L.) Barton
JSU139478 Calhoun 16 Mar 1986 Lawler, Carol L.
099
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
AUA_ACC_37583 Escambia 6 Oct 1981 Henderson, T.
706
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
JSU139683 St. Clair 13 Apr 1986 Naugher, Rhonda L.
s.n.
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
UWAL0052248 Blount 14 Oct 2018 Keener, Brian R.
10913
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W.P.C. Barton
AUA_ACC_48288 Talladega 25 Oct 1980 Webb, A.L.
167
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
AUA_ACC_35501 Shelby 19 Jul 1977 Sessler, Ann H.
1727
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
UNA00042651 Talladega s.d. Mohr, Charles
s.n.
UNA
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
UWAL0002646 Lawrence 08 May 2005 England, J. Kevin
0532
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
JSU139122 Shelby 12 Oct 1996 Spaulding, Daniel D.
9392
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
TROY000022002 Hale 20 Oct 2006 Keener, Brian R.
3228
TROY
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
UNA00042641 Tuscaloosa 24 Oct 1978 Wiersema, John H.
481
UNA
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
ALNHS00006358 St. Clair 01 Nov 2018 Barger, T. Wayne
BCC#155
ALNHS
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart
JSU139480 Calhoun 05 Oct 1973 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
TROY000048833 Autauga 24 Aug 2018 Parker, Matthew R.
1758
TROY
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
JSU139474 Calhoun 07 Oct 1994 Hruska, Susan E.
496
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
UWAL0044114 Baldwin 15 Sep 2002 Larsen, H.S.
1134
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (L.) Barton
JSU139479 Calhoun 16 Mar 1986 Lawler, Carol L.
099
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
AUA_ACC_26861 Tallapoosa 4 Sep 1974 Hutto, T.A.
499
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
JSU139668 Cullman 11 Mar 1984 Nixon, Christopher F.
568
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
TROY000042850 Montgomery 03 Jul 2015 Diamond, Alvin R.
26538
TROY
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
JSU139475 Calhoun 06 Feb 1992 Hutchinson, Francine
0099
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
AUA_ACC_33902 Jefferson 26 Apr 1977 Sessler, Ann H.
1105
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
UWAL0005565 Marengo 08 Oct 2008 England, J. Kevin
1385
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
JSU139676 Lawrence 17 Sep 1994 Spaulding, Daniel D.
6397
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
AUA_ACC_43214 Conecuh 1 Sep 1985 Diamond, Alvin R.
1643
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
UNA00042648 Hale 05 Aug 1966 Williams, Norris H.
402
UNA
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
AUA_ACC_55390 Pike 27 May 1995 Diamond, Alvin R.
9565
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
JSU139688 Tuscaloosa 02 Mar 1979 Whetstone, R. David
9347
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
UWFP014183 Baldwin 30 Dec 1984 Frank R. Hedges
328
UWFP
Epifagus virginiana (L.) Barton
AUA000040949 Lee 17 Nov 2017 Taylor, Chris T.
CSP427
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
AUA_ACC_43499 Monroe 5 Apr 1986 Diamond, Alvin R.
2260
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
JSU139681 Morgan 05 Aug 1974 Atkinson, Tim A.
542
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
UNA00055458 Lamar 17 Mar 2002 Haynes, Robert R.
10227
UNA
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
UWAL0047281 Autauga 15 Sep 2016 Parker, Matthew R.
90
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
AUA_ACC_53413 Jackson 19 Sep 1991 Gunn, Scott C.
2093
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
TROY000007590 Barbour 11 Nov 1999 MacDonald, John R.
13695
TROY
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
JSU139669 DeKalb 15 Apr 1967 Prater, Pat
s.n.
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
AUA_ACC_60892 Dale 19 Jul 1989 Diamond, Alvin R.
5951
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
UNA00066941 Hale 20 Oct 2006 Keener, Brian R.
3228
UNA
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
TROY000031952 Butler 07 Nov 2010 Diamond, Alvin R.
21696
TROY
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
UNA00042649 Monroe 15 Apr 1980 Davenport, Lawrence J.
1765
UNA
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
UWAL0005564 Hale 20 Oct 2006 Keener, Brian R.
3228
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
AUA_ACC_37719 Monroe 13 Oct 1981 Henderson, T.
738
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
UNA00042645 Choctaw 24 Sep 1967 McDaniel, Sidney
9817
UNA
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
AUA_ACC_33588 St. Clair 18 Sep 1979 Owsley, C.Michael
S.N.
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
UNA00042654 Bibb 11 Sep 1985 Horn, Charles N.
868
UNA
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
UWAL0051255 Jefferson 01 Mar 1985 Barber, J.P.
1277
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (L.) Britton
UNA00042647 Tuscaloosa 23 Sep 1952 Chermock, Ralph L.
s.n.
UNA
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
UWAL0049247 Lauderdale 19 Sep 2020 Finzel, Brian
s.n.
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
JSU139664 Cleburne 15 Nov 1987 Alford, J. Erik
157
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
JSU139686 Talladega 20 Sep 1984 Nixon, Christopher F.
826
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
TROY000042267 Houston 16 Apr 2015 Diamond, Alvin R.
26171
TROY
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
UNA00042638 Dallas 01 Oct 1982 Gunn, Scott C.
1320
UNA
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
UWAL0001736 Butler 07 Nov 2010 Diamond, A.R.
21696
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
JSU139662 Clay 06 Oct 1993 Ballard, J. Mark
3353
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
TROY000051626 Tallapoosa 30 Sep 2020 Diamond, Alvin R.
29462
TROY
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
JSU139472 Blount 28 Mar 1976 Whetstone, R. David
7682
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
UWAL0005569 Sumter 17 Sep 2008 Keener, Brian R.
4875
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
JSU139670 DeKalb 16 Oct 1986 Martin, A.L.
036
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
AUA_ACC_43478 Monroe 3 Sep 1985 Diamond, Alvin R.
1674
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
JSU139661 Calhoun 09 May 1973 Whetstone, R. David
s.n.
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
UWAL0010820 Butler 04 Mar 2012 Diamond, Alvin R.
22812
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
UWFP014182 Baldwin 09 Nov 1985 James R. Burkhalter
10258
UWFP
Epifagus virginiana (L.) Barton
JSU139673 Jackson 18 Sep 1998 Brodeur, Kristin R.
1413
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
AUA_ACC_43209 Wilcox 5 Apr 1986 Diamond, Alvin R.
2262
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
JSU139667 Cleburne 09 Apr 1968 Brown, Dickie
s.n.
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
UNA00053977 Lawrence 18 Oct 1980 Haynes, Robert R.
8221
UNA
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
UWAL0046356 Autauga 24 Aug 2018 Parker, Matthew R.
1758
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
AUA_ACC_39189 Wilcox 2 Oct 1982 Gunn, Scott C.
1342
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
AUA_ACC_34512 Macon 15 Oct 1976 Sessler, Ann H.
S.N.
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
JSU139679 Marshall 18 May 1973 Whetstone, R. David
RDW-1382
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
JSU139473 Calhoun 21 Sep 1986 Dickson, Catherine C.
040
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
TROY000034150 Lawrence 08 May 2005 England, J. Kevin
532
TROY
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
UNA00042652 Tuscaloosa 15 Sep 1979 Haynes, Robert R.
7575
UNA
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
TROY000021619 Cherokee 25 Sep 2007 Barger, T. Wayne
325
TROY
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
JSU139675 Jefferson 01 Mar 1985 Barber, J. Patrick
1277
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
AUA000043200 Tuscaloosa 26 Aug 1927 Wolf, Wolfgang
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
UNA00042650 Mobile _ Aug _ Mohr, Charles
s.n.
UNA
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
TROY000036080 Bullock 14 Sep 2012 Dykes, Bailee
1245
TROY
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
UNA00042644 Lawrence 29 Aug 1949 Segars, Charles B.
147
UNA
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
TROY000033650 Barbour 08 Oct 2011 Morrison, Derek
149
TROY
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
JSU139476 Calhoun 25 Sep 1986 Alford, J. Erik
s.n.
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
JSU139682 Randolph 21 Sep 1985 Nixon, Christopher F.
1332
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
UWAL0047139 Autauga 15 Sep 2016 Parker, Matthew R.
91
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
AUA_ACC_39188 Dallas 1 Oct 1982 Gunn, Scott C.
1320
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
UNA00042639 Wilcox 02 Oct 1982 Gunn, Scott C.
1342
UNA
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
UWAL0005567 St. Clair 28 Oct 2007 Keener, Brian R.
3991
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
JSU139672 Etowah 27 Aug 1994 Hodge, Lesley M.
3225
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
AUA_ACC_41348 Conecuh 18 Dec 1985 Diamond, Alvin R.
1970
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
UNA00054451 Blount 19 Sep 1998 Keener, Brian R.
1636
UNA
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
UWAL0034674 Lowndes 04 Oct 1994 Kral, R.
84279
UWAL
Epifagus virginiana (L.) Bart.
JSU139680 Monroe 01 Nov 1997 Whetstone, R. David
19072
JSU
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
AUA_ACC_62140 Lawrence 18 Oct 1980 Haynes, Robert R.
8221
AUA
Epifagus Virginiana (L.) Bart.
UNA00042653 Geneva 26 Oct 1966 McDaniel, Sidney
7960
UNA
Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. Bart.
First Page Previous Page Next Page Last Page
Records per Page: