Hypopitys monotropa

Family:ERICACEAE
Species:Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
Common Name:Pinesap; False Beechdrops; Many Flower Indian Pipe
Habitat:Various dry to mesic forests.
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:MOHY3
Plant Notes:Pinesap is a native achlorophyllous perennial herb in the Heath family (Ericaceae). It can be found throughout Alabama. Pinesap occurs in dry to mesic pine or mixed pine-hardwood forests, in scrub oak woods, in sandhills, and in Longleaf pine forests. Pinesap for most of the year exists as short, stubby roots surrounded by and connected to a mass of mycorrhizal fungal hyphae. The fungal hyphae are in turn connected to the roots of conifers. The Pinesap obtains sugars produced by photosynthesis in the conifer by way of these fungal connections. So, Pinesap is a parasite, indirectly parasitizing the conifer by way of the fungal connection. In late spring or autumn 1 to several yellow or red stems emerge from the soil. Plants that flower in the spring tend to be yellow in color while those that flower in the autumn tend to be red in color. It is possible that there are several cryptic species currently lumped into this one entity. The stems are from 1-5 inches in height. The stems are pubescent, glandular, or glabrous and have sessile, clasping, rounded scale-like leaves along their length. Flowers are produced in secund racemes of 3-15 flowers. The flowers are nodding with 0-5 sepals and 4-5 petals. The flowers are yellow to red in color and fragrant. The fruit is a capsule. After pollination, the stem straightens so that the capsule is held erect. The small seed have membranous wings. Pinesap is easily damaged. Damaged portions of the plant become black in color. Pinesap is similar to, but smaller than Indian Pipe (Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus). It often occurs in the same habitat, but is much less common. Until recently this plant was known by the name Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus. Pinesap is listed as an S2 species in Alabama (typically 6 to 20 occurrences, few remaining individuals, acres, or miles of stream, or factors demonstrably making it very vulnerable in the state), and globally as a G5 species (demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in p
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native, S2 (State Rank), G5 (Global Rank)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyERICACEAE - Heath family
Genus Hypopitys
Species Hypopitys monotropa Crantz - Pinesap; False Beechdrops; Many Flower Indian Pipe

Citation

Citation HYPOPITHYS MONOTROPA Crantz, Inst. Rei Herb. 2: 467. 1766.
Basionym: **
Type: Without data, Herb. Burser III: 156 (lectotype: UPS). Lectotypified by G. D. Wallace, in Luteyn, Fl. Neotrop. 66: 20. 1995.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Hypopitys brevis Hypopitys brevis Small, in Britton, N. Amer. Fl. 29(1): 13. 1914. OREGON: Marion Co.: Independence Valley, Aug 1892, Craig 5214 (holotype: NY; isotype: OSC).
Hypopitys dentata Hypopitys dentata Rafinesque, Med. Repos., ser. 3. 1: 297. 1810. "Virginia and Maryland",
Hypopitys europaea Hypopitys europaea Nuttall, Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 1: 271. 1818, nom. illegit.Hypopitys monotropa Crantz 1766; Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus 1753. 
Hypopitys fimbriata Hypopitys fimbriata (A. Gray) Howell, Fl. N.W. Amer. 429. 1901.Monotropa fimbriata A. Gray 1873. 
Hypopitys glabra Hypopitys glabra (Roth) de Candolle, Prodr. 7: 780. 1839, nom. illegit.Monotropa hypophegea Wallroth 1822; Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. glabra Roth 1788. 
Hypopitys hypophegea Hypopitys hypophegea (Wallroth) G. Don, Gen. Hist. 3: 866. 1834.Monotropa hypophegea Wallroth 1822; Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. glabra Roth 1788. 
Hypopitys insignata Hypopitys insignata E. P. Bicknell, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 41: 413. 1914. MASSACHUSETTS: Dukes Co.: Chappaquiddick Island, 5 Oct 1912, Bicknell 6775 (holotype: NY; isotypes: NY 2 shts).
Hypopitys lanuginosa var. rosea Hypopitys lanuginosa (Michaux) Small, var. rosea House, Bull. New York State Mus. 243/244: 69. 1923, nom. illegit.Monotropa lanuginosa Michaux, var. rubra Torrey 1846. 
Hypopitys latisquama Hypopitys latisquama Rydb., Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 41: 461. 1913. MONTANA: Gallatin Co.: Bridger Mountains, 28 Jul 1896, Flodman 708 (holotype: NY; isotype: NY).
Hypopitys lutea Hypopitys lutea Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 404. 1821, nom. illegit.Hypopitys monotropa Crantz 1766; Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus 1753. 
Hypopitys monotropa var. glabra Hypopitys monotropa Crantz, var. glabra (Roth) Druce, List. Brit. Pl. 47. 1908.Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. glabra Roth 1788. 
Hypopitys multiflora Hypopitys multiflora Scopoli, Fl. Carniol., ed. 2. 1: 285. 1771, nom. illegit.Hypopitys monotropa Crantz 1766; Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus 1753. 
Hypopitys multiflora subsp. hypophegea Hypopitys multiflora Scopoli, subsp. hypophegea (Wallroth) Rouy, in Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 4: 10. 1897.Monotropa hypophegea Wallroth 1822; Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. glabra Roth 1788. 
Hypopitys multiflora var. americana Hypopitys multiflora Scopoli, var. americana de Candolle, Prodr. 7: 780. 1839.  
Hypopitys multiflora var. glabra Hypopitys multiflora Scopoli, var. glabra (Roth) Ledebour, Fl. Ross. 2: 934. 1846.Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. glabra Roth 1788. 
Hypopitys multiflora var. hirsuta Hypopitys multiflora Scopoli, var. hirsuta Ledebour, Fl. Ross. 2: 934. 1846, nom. inadmiss.Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. hirsuta Roth 1788, nom. inadmiss.; Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus 1753. 
Hypopitys multiflora var. ramosa Hypopitys multiflora Scopoli, var. ramosa Rouy, in Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 4: 10. 1897.  
Hypopitys multiflora var. serotina Hypopitys multiflora Scopoli, var. serotina Rouy, in Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 4: 10. 1897.  
Hypopitys racemosa Hypopitys racemosa Rafinesque, Med. Repos., ser. 3. 1: 297. 1810. "Maryland, Pennsylvania",
Hypopitys rivinii Hypopitys rivinii Ruppius f. ex Cesati et al., Comp. Fl. Ital., ed. 1886. 418. 1886.  
Hypopitys secunda Hypopitys secunda Rafinesque, Med. Repos., ser. 3. 1: 297. 1810. "Carolina"
Hypopitys stricta Hypopitys stricta Rafinesque, Med. Repos., ser. 3. 1: 297. 1810. MARYLAND
Hypopitys americana Hypopitys americana (de Candolle) Small, Fl. S.E. U.S. 880, 1336. 1903.Hypopitys multiflora Scopoli, var. americana de Candolle 1839. 
Hypopitys hypopitys Hypopitys hypopithys (Linnaeus) Small, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 4: 137. 1893, nom. inadmiss.Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus 1753. 
Hypopitys lanuginosa Hypopitys lanuginosa (Michaux) Rafinesque, Med. Repos., ser. 3. 1: 297. 1810.Monotropa lanuginosa Michaux 1803.  
Monotropa abietina Monotropa abietina Dumortier, Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 4: 342. 1865.  
Monotropa abietina var. sanguinea Monotropa abietina Dumortier, var. sanguinea Haussknecht, Mitt. Geogr. Ges. (Thueringen) Jena 3: 286. 1885.  
Monotropa chinensis Monotropa chinensis Koidzumi, Fl. Symb. Orient.-Asiat. 28. 1930. CHINA
Monotropa europaea Monotropa europaea Etaon & J. Wright, Man. Bot., ed. 8. 323. 1840, nom. illegit.Hypopitys europaea Nuttall 1818, nom. illegit.; Hypopitys monotropa Crantz 1766; Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus 1753. 
Monotropa fimbriata Monotropa fimbriata A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 8: 629. 1873. OREGON: Marion Co.: Silverton, 30 Jun 1871, Hall 357 (holotype: GH; isotype: NY).
Monotropa glabra Monotropa glabra (Roth) Bernhardi ex Reichenbach, Fl. Germ. Excurs. 411. 1831-1832, nom. illegit.Monotropa hypophegea Wallroth 1822; Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. glabra Roth 1788. 
Monotropa hirsuta Monotropa hirsuta Hornemann, Fors. Oecon. Plantel., ed. 3. 2: 179. 1835, nom. illegit.Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. hirsuta Roth 1788, nom. inadmiss.; Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus 1753. 
Monotropa hypophagos Monotropa hypophagos Dumortier, Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 4: 344. 1865.  
Monotropa hypophegea Monotropa hypophegea Wallroth, Sched. Crit. 191. 1822.Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. glabra Roth 1788. 
Monotropa hypopithys subsp. lanuginosa Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, subsp. lanuginosa (Michaux) H. Hara, J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Sect. 3, Bot. 6: 348. 1956.Monotropa lanuginosa Michaux 1803.  
Monotropa hypopithys var. americana Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. americana (de Candolle) Domin, Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. Prag, Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 1915: 24. 1915.Hypopitys multiflora Scopoli, var. americana de Candolle 1839. 
Monotropa hypopithys var. carnea Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. carnea Schutz ex G. Martens & Kemmler, Fl. Wuertemberg, ed. 3. 296. 1882.  
Monotropa hypopithys var. fimbriata Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. fimbriata (A. Gray) Domin, Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. Prag, Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 1915: 24. 1915.Monotropa fimbriata A. Gray 1873. 
Monotropa hypopithys var. glaberrima Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. glaberrima H. Hara, J. Jap. Bot. 14: 427. 1938.  
Monotropa hypopithys var. glabra Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. glabra Roth, Tent. Fl. Germ. 1: 180. 1788. GERMANY
Monotropa hypopithys var. gracilescens Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. gracilescens Domin, Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. Prag, Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 1915: 21. 1915.  
Monotropa hypopithys var. hirsuta Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. hirsuta Roth, Tent. Fl. Germ. 1: 180. 1788, nom. inadmiss.Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus 1753. 
Monotropa hypopithys var. hypophagos Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. hypophagos (Dumortier) Andres, Verh. Naturhist. Vereines Preuss. Rheinl. Westphalens 66: 145. 1909.Monotropa hypophagos Dumortier 1865.  
Monotropa hypopithys var. hypophegea Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. hypophegea (Wallroth) Fries, Novit. Fl. Suec. Alt. 115. 1828, nom. illegit.Monotropa hypophegea Wallroth 1822; Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. glabra Roth 1788. 
Monotropa hypopithys var. japonica Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. japonica (Franchet & Savatier) Franchet & Savatier, Enum. Pl. Jap. 2: 428. 1879.Monotropa japonica Franchet & Savatier 1875. 
Monotropa hypopithys var. latisquama Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. latisquama (Rydberg) Kearney & Peebles, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 29: 487. 1939.Hypopitys latisquama Rydberg 1913. 
Monotropa hypopithys var. rubra Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. rubra (Torrey) Farwell, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 10: 39. 1926.Monotropa lanuginosa Michaux, var. rubra Torrey 1846. 
Monotropa hypopithys var. tomentosa Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. tomentosa Velenovsky, Allg. Bot. Z. Syst. 10: 34. 1904.  
Monotropa hypoxya Monotropa hypoxya Sprengel, Syst. Veg. 2: 317. 1825, nom. illegit.Monotropa hypophegea Wallroth 1822; Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus, var. glabra Roth 1788. 
Monotropa japonica Monotropa japonica Franchet & Savatier, Enum. Pl. Jap. 1: 297. 1875. JAPAN
Monotropa laevipetala Monotropa laevipetala S. Gibson, Phytologist 1: 201. 1842.  
Monotropa lanuginosa Monotropa lanuginosa Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 266. 1803. NORTH CAROLINA:
Monotropa lanuginosa var. glabriuscula Monotropa lanuginosa Michaux, var. glabriuscula Torrey, Fl. New York 1: 457. 1846. NEW YORK: Yates Co.: Without data, Sartwell s.n. (holotype: ?).
Monotropa lanuginosa var. rubra Monotropa lanuginosa Michaux, var. rubra Torrey, Fl. New York 1: 457. 1846.  
Monotropa latisquama Monotropa latisquama (Rydberg) Hultén, Fl. Alaska 1216. 1948.Hypopitys latisquama Rydberg 1913. 
Monotropa multiflora Monotropa multiflora Fritsch, Excursionsfl. Oesterreich 426. 1897, nom. illegit.Hypopitys multiflora Scopoli 1771, nom. illegit.; Hypopitys monotropa Crantz 1766; Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus 1753. 
Monotropa squamiformis Monotropa squamiformis Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees 421. 1867.Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus 1753.  
Monotropa hypopithys MONOTROPA HYPOPITHYS Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 387. 1753.. Without data, Herb. Burser III: 156 (lectotype: UPS). Lectotypified by G. D. Wallace, in Luteyn, Fl. Neotrop. 66: 20. 1995.

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Bibb, Blount, Butler, Calhoun, Clay, Cleburne, Covington, Cullman, DeKalb, Franklin, Jackson, Lawrence, Lee, Marshall, Pike, Randolph, Talladega, Tallapoosa, Tuscaloosa, Winston

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: ALNHS, AUA, JSU, TROY, UNA, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
JSU121544 Jackson 1 May 1998 Brodeur, Kristin R.
613
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
JSU121410 Calhoun 20 Jun 1974 Atkinson, Tim A.
371
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
JSU121419 Cleburne 4 Mar 1973 Whetstone, R. David
RDW-207
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
JSU121545 Marshall 13 Aug 1975 Whetstone, R. David
6397
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
JSU121548 Marshall 21 Jun 1992 Spaulding, Daniel D.
2066
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
JSU121411 Clay 4 Oct 1994 Ballard, J. Mark
5193
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
JSU121412 Clay 1 Jul 1993 Ballard, J. Mark
2880
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
JSU121420 Cleburne 4 Mar 1973 Whetstone, R. David
RDW-207
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
AUA_ACC_50531 Pike 11 Sep 1991 Diamond, Alvin R.
7703
AUA
Hypopitys Monotropa Crantz
UNA00044007 Randolph 5 May 1986 Nixon, C.F.
3454
UNA
Monotropa hypopithys L.
JSU121418 Cleburne 4 Mar 1973 Whetstone, R. David
RDW-207
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
AUA_ACC_57034 Pike 9 Oct 1996 Diamond, Alvin R.
10579
AUA
Hypopitys Monotropa Crantz
AUA_ACC_53220 Pike 14 May 1989 Diamond, Alvin R.
5893
AUA
Hypopitys Monotropa Crantz
JSU121550 Randolph 28 May 1986 Nixon, Christopher F.
2190
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
JSU121417 Cleburne 4 Mar 1973 Whetstone, R. David
RDW-207
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
JSU121414 Cleburne 20 Jun 1974 Atkinson, Tim A.
370
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
UWAL0015618 Lawrence 21 Oct 2012 England, J. Kevin
4009
UWAL
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
UWAL0009987 Calhoun 07 Nov 2009 Spaulding, Daniel D.
13216
UWAL
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
JSU121549 Marshall 13 Aug 1975 Whetstone, R. David
6397
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
UNA00053901 Blount 26 Jul 1997 Keener, Brian R.
261a
UNA
Monotropa hypopithys L.
TROY000007148 Pike 19 Sep 2002 Diamond, Alvin R.
13666
TROY
Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus
UNA00013913 Tuscaloosa 23 May 1980 Brice, Marilyn
14
UNA
Monotropa hypopithys L.
JSU121542 DeKalb 9 Jun 1976 Whetstone, R. David
8435
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
JSU121546 Marshall 30 May 1993 Spaulding, Daniel D.
4059
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
JSU121541 DeKalb 23 Oct 1997 Brodeur, Kristin R.
101
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
ALNHS00004402 Lee 29 May 2016 Barger, T. Wayne
CSP-304
ALNHS
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
AUA_ACC_3698 DeKalb 26 May 1956 Davis, Donald E.
AUA
Hypopitys Monotropa Crantz
JSU121413 Clay 19 Jul 1983 Bussey, Melanie G.
771
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
ALNHS00001349 Cleburne 19 Jul 2012 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#748
ALNHS
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
AUA_ACC_37784 Jackson 31 Aug 1981 Henderson, T.
495
AUA
Hypopitys Monotropa Crantz
TROY000007147 Covington 27 Oct 2001 Sasser, Telenna
s.n.
TROY
Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus
JSU121408 Bibb 22 Jul 1982 Whetstone, R. David
11757
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
JSU121416 Cleburne 18 Jun 1974 Cheatwood, Diane
s.n.
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
TROY000052144 Tallapoosa 04 Jun 2020 Diamond, Alvin R.
29314
TROY
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
JSU121543 DeKalb 11 Aug 1974 Whetstone, R. David
3510
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
UNA00013912 Cullman _ Jul 1890 Mohr, Mary
s.n.
UNA
Monotropa hypopithys L.
JSU121551 Talladega 15 Jun 1995 Ballard, J. Mark
5507
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
JSU121409 Calhoun 20 Jun 1974 Freeman, Sondra
s.n.
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
AUA_ACC_42213 Franklin 26 May 1986 Freeman, John D.
S. N.
AUA
Hypopitys Monotropa Crantz
AUA_ACC_3699 Lee May 1950 Davis, Donald E.
AUA
Hypopitys Monotropa Crantz
ALNHS00002446 Tallapoosa 16 Oct 2013 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#1267
ALNHS
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
TROY000035716 Butler 21 Sep 2012 Diamond, Alvin R.
23406
TROY
Monotropa hypopithys Linnaeus
JSU121547 Marshall 3 Aug 1976 Whetstone, R. David
s.n.
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
JSU121552 Winston 17 Sep 1994 Spaulding, Daniel D.
6373
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
JSU121415 Cleburne 18 Jun 1974 Cheatwood, Diane
s.n.
JSU
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
ALNHS00004402 Lee 29 May 2016 Barger, T. Wayne
CSP-304
ALNHS
Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
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