Hibiscus laevis

Family:MALVACEAE
Species:Hibiscus laevis Allioni
Common Name:Smooth Rose Mallow; Halberd Leaf Rose Mallow; Showy Hibiscus
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:HILA2
Plant Notes:Halberd Leaf Rose Mallow is a native herbaceous perennial in the Mallow family (Malvaceae). It can be found throughout much of Alabama. Halberd Leaf Rose Mallow grows on the banks of ponds and lakes, along streams and rivers, in marshes and sloughs, and in wet roadside ditches. It is a perennial with thick, spongy roots. Several stems develop from each root crown. The stems are erect, green in color, 3-6 feet in height, and glabrous. The stems have short side branches in the upper half. Leaves are alternate, petiolate, hastate in shape, glabrous, with serrate margins. The leaves resemble a medieval halberd, hence the common name. Flowers are solitary in the axils of the upper leaves. The flowers have a green balloon-like calyx with 5 lobes and 5 pink petals. The fruit is a capsule with many oval, brown, hairy seed. For many years this plant was known by the name of Hibiscus militaris Cavanilles, and is still listed that way in some places. Halberd Leaf Rose Mallow buds, flowers, and developing fruit are fed upon by caterpillars of the Gray Hairstreak Butterfly (Strymon melinus). Caterpillars of the Painted Lady Butterfly (Vanessa cardui) and Common Checkered Skipper (Pyrgus communis) feed on the foliage. Caterpillars of the Pearly Wood Nymph Moth (Eudryas unio), Yellow Scallop Moth (Anomis erosa), and Io Moth (Automeris io) also feed on the foliage of Halberd Leaf Rose Mallow. Halberd Leaf Rose Mallow is available as either plants or seed from native plant nurseries. It prefers an organic rich soil that is constantly wet and full sun. It can be used around ponds or pools, and in rain gardens.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native, OBL (NWI)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyMALVACEAE - Mallow family
Genus Hibiscus
Species Hibiscus laevis Allioni - Smooth Rose Mallow; Halberd Leaf Rose Mallow; Showy Hibiscus

Citation

Citation HIBISCUS LAEVIS Allioni, Auct. Syn. 31. 1773.
Basionym: **
Type: VIRGINIA: Cult. at Turin, Italy,

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Hibiscus hastatus Hibiscus hastatus Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 45. 1803, non Linnaeus f. 1782, nec Cavanilles 1787.  
Hibiscus riparius Hibiscus riparius Persoon, Syn. Pl. 2: 254. 1807.Hibiscus hastatus Michaux 1803, non Linnaeus f. 1782, nec Cavanilles 1787. 
Hibiscus militaris Hibiscus militaris Cavanilles, Diss. 6: 352, t. 198(2). 1788. LOUISIANA

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Barbour, Butler, Calhoun, Cherokee, Choctaw, Clarke, Colbert, Covington, Crenshaw, Cullman, Dale, Dallas, Elmore, Etowah, Franklin, Geneva, Greene, Henry, Jackson, Jefferson, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Limestone, Lowndes, Macon, Madison, Marengo, Marshall, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Pike, Sumter, Washington, Wilcox, Winston

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, UNAF, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1977 - 1982

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
AUA_ACC_41849 Macon 10 Oct 1973 Sutherland, M.
63
AUA
Hibiscus Laevis All.
AUA_ACC_34973 Covington 2 Jul 1979 Crawford, Lloyd C.
AUA
Hibiscus Laevis All.
UWAL0006716 Dale 31 Jul 2008 Diamond, Alvin R.
19671
UWAL
Hibiscus laevis All.
TROY000035960 Marengo 24 Jul 2011 England, J. Kevin
3081
TROY
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UWAL0043184 Baldwin 06 Sep 2010 Larsen, Harry S.
803
UWAL
Hibiscus laevis All.
USAM000008466 Wilcox 04 Aug 1978 Haynes, Robert R.
6852
USAM
Hibiscus militaris Cavanilles
TROY000033848 Montgomery 28 Aug 2011 Diamond, Alvin R.
22468
TROY
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
JSU132009 Clarke 31 Oct 1997 Whetstone, R. David
19006
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNAF0001691 Lauderdale 10 Jul 1990 Hyde, Paula
s.n.
UNAF
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNAF0001696 Lauderdale 09 Jul 1977 Watts, Bill
s.n.
UNAF
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNA00010828 Lawrence 01 Aug 1978 Haynes, Robert R.
6816
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
UWAL0006714 Clarke 07 Sep 2003 Keener, Brian R.
2969
UWAL
Hibiscus laevis All.
USAM000008470 Baldwin 17 Jul 1970 LeLong, Michel G.
5439
USAM
Hibiscus militaris Cavanilles
UWAL0035756 Baldwin 07 Jul 2015 Horne, Howard E.
2995
UWAL
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
AUA_ACC_39196 Autauga 15 Jul 1982 Gunn, Scott C.
944
AUA
Hibiscus Laevis All.
TROY000006990 Dale 28 Sep 2000 Pennington, Tiffany
1075
TROY
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
JSU132022 Morgan 7 Aug 1975 Whetstone, R. David
6078
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
AUA_ACC_23170 Colbert 7 Aug 1971 Strait, Dan B.
161
AUA
Hibiscus Laevis All.
TROY000044580 Geneva 06 Jul 2017 Byrd, Cameron
1019
TROY
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UWAL0014142 Butler 02 Sep 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24504
UWAL
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
TROY000032935 Pike 16 Aug 2011 Diamond, Alvin R.
22422
TROY
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
JSU132019 Marshall 2 Aug 1992 Spaulding, Daniel D.
2528
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNAF0001699 Limestone 12 Sep 1985 Holland, Shane
s.n.
UNAF
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNAF0001688 Colbert 20 Jul 1992 Walden, Amy
s.n.
UNAF
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNA00010818 Limestone 01 Aug 1978 Haynes, Robert R.
6809
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
UWAL0016013 Butler 02 Sep 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24504
UWAL
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNAF0001700 Morgan 04 Jul 1992 Graves, Alicia
s.n.
UNAF
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
JSU132003 Calhoun 30 Jul 1986 Lawler, Carol L.
871
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
AUA_ACC_39195 Lowndes 13 Jul 1982 Gunn, Scott C.
887
AUA
Hibiscus Laevis All.
UNA00069689 Lauderdale 09 Oct 2008 Webb, David
6857
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
SAMF0003400 Elmore 10 Jul 2011 Davenport, Lawrence J.
4713
SAMF
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UWAL0009946 Cherokee 17 Jul 2011 Spaulding, Daniel D.
13368
UWAL
Hibiscus laevis All.
AUA000041157 Dallas 24 Aug 2010 Barger, T. Wayne
OC464
AUA
Hibiscus Laevis All.
UNA00010853 Morgan 23 Jul 1980 Meigs, Russell A.
1069
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
JSU132007 Choctaw 13 Sep 1997 Higginbotham, Jerri W.
157
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
USAM000008463 Baldwin 26 Jun 1981 LeLong, Michel G.
12105
USAM
Hibiscus militaris Cavanilles
AUA000036473 Morgan 15 Aug 2015 England, J. Kevin
5578
AUA
Hibiscus Laevis All.
UNA00010888 Montgomery 03 Sep 1977 Haynes, Robert R.
6370
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
UNAF0001697 Lauderdale 01 Jun 1979 Lancaster, David
s.n.
UNAF
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
AUA_ACC_61129 Choctaw 26 Jul 1994 Crouch, Virginia E.
1102
AUA
Hibiscus Laevis All.
UNA00010858 Greene 04 Aug 1980 Haynes, Robert R.
8081
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
JSU132013 Jackson 31 Aug 1997 Ballard, J. Mark
7444
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UWAL0047221 Autauga 21 Sep 2017 Parker, Matthew R.
1285
UWAL
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
AUA_ACC_41311 Barbour 25 Jul 1972 Hudgins, Charles H.
159
AUA
Hibiscus Laevis All.
UNA00010863 Dale 11 Jul 1978 Haynes, Robert R.
6653
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
USAM000008468 Clarke 03 Aug 1972 LeLong, Michel G.
6707
USAM
Hibiscus militaris Cavanilles
UWAL0006717 Jackson 29 Sep 2001 Giannasi, David E.
176
UWAL
Hibiscus laevis All.
JSU132015 Limestone 27 Jun 1996 Whetstone, R. David
17867
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
AUA_ACC_11331 Baldwin 27 Jul 1968 Scarsbrook, Ellen
AUA
Hibiscus Laevis All.
UNA00010848 Madison 23 Jul 1980 Meigs, Russell A.
1060
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
AUA_ACC_48949 Henry 24 Jul 1988 Diamond, Alvin R.
5296
AUA
Hibiscus Laevis All.
USAM000008462 Baldwin 26 Jun 1981 LeLong, Michel G.
12105
USAM
Hibiscus militaris Cavanilles
AUA_ACC_206 16 Aug 1898 Andrews, Elizabeth F.
AUA
Hibiscus Laevis All.
UNA00065731 Crenshaw 04 Jul 2006 Diamond, Alvin R.
16621
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
UNAF0001687 Colbert 01 Jun 1979 Lancaster, David
36
UNAF
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
TROY000034287 Greene 08 Jul 2009 Keener, Brian R.
5497
TROY
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNA00010873 Wilcox 04 Aug 1978 Haynes, Robert R.
6852
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
TROY000043527 Sumter 18 Jul 2015 Keener, Brian R.
9032
TROY
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UWAL0030853 Sumter 18 Jul 2015 Keener, Brian R.
9032
UWAL
Hibiscus laevis All.
TROY000006986 Barbour 15 Jul 2001 Diamond, Alvin R.
12547
TROY
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNA00010893 Choctaw 10 Jul 1979 Haynes, Robert R.
7431
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
USAM000008464 Mobile 01 Nov 1980 LeLong, Michel G.
11807
USAM
Hibiscus militaris Cavanilles
UWAL0014129 Geneva 25 Aug 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24481
UWAL
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
AUA_ACC_61154 Barbour 23 Oct 2001 Gil, Glenda
(2001-18)
AUA
Hibiscus Laevis All.
UNAF0001768 Lauderdale 09 Oct 2008 Webb, David H.
6857
UNAF
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
JSU132021 Morgan 7 Aug 1975 Whetstone, R. David
6078
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UWAL0016408 Geneva 03 Jul 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
25271
UWAL
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
TROY000006989 Crenshaw 04 Jul 2006 Diamond, Alvin R.
16621
TROY
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
JSU132016 Limestone 13 Jul 1996 Spaulding, Daniel D.
9093
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNAF0001698 Limestone 16 Jul 1993 Hofmann, Tim
s.n.
UNAF
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNAF0001694 Lauderdale 20 Sep 1985 Sharp, Dawn
s.n.
UNAF
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UWAL0030003 Morgan 15 Aug 2015 England, J. Kevin
5578
UWAL
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNA00056913 Covington 24 Jun 1998 MacDonald, John R.
11479
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
JSU132017 Madison 13 Aug 1975 Whetstone, R. David
6316
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNA00010843 Washington 06 Aug 1979 Davenport, Lawrence J.
1447
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
UNAF0001695 Lauderdale 10 Jul 1990 Davidson, Nathan
s.n.
UNAF
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
JSU132005 Calhoun 29 Aug 1987 Lawler, Carol L.
1637
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
TROY000033612 Barbour 20 Aug 2011 Morrison, Derek
28
TROY
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNA00010898 Dallas _ _ 1879 Vasser, E.M.
s.n.
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
JSU132006 Calhoun 11 Jul 1986 Lawler, Carol L.
732
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
USAM000008469 Baldwin 17 Jul 1970 Wofford, B. Eugene
10508
USAM
Hibiscus militaris Cavanilles
UWAL0052343 Lauderdale 08 Aug 2017 Keener, Brian R.
10354
UWAL
Hibiscus laevis All.
JSU132008 Clarke 13 Sep 1997 Whetstone, R. David
18860
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
USAM000008465 Baldwin 26 Jun 1981 LeLong, Michel G.
12105
USAM
Hibiscus militaris Cavanilles
JSU132011 Etowah 31 Jul 1994 Hodge, Lesley M.
2930
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNAF0001692 Lauderdale 10 Jul 1990 Lawrence, Terri
07990
UNAF
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
AUA_ACC_41850 Montgomery 3 Nov 1973 Kratzer, G.A.
183
AUA
Hibiscus Laevis All.
UNA00010813 Lowndes 05 Aug 1978 Haynes, Robert R.
6873
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
JSU132014 Jefferson 15 Aug 1984 Barber, J. Patrick
957
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNA00010883 Limestone 01 Aug 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
700
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
UNAF0001689 Cullman 26 Sep 1989 Cooke, Steve
07610
UNAF
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
AUA_ACC_48201 Barbour 3 Nov 1980 Jackson, Mike
124
AUA
Hibiscus Laevis All.
UNA00010868 Choctaw 26 Jul 1978 Haynes, Robert R.
6751
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
TROY000006988 Crenshaw 09 Jul 2000 Diamond, Alvin R.
11809
TROY
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNA00063631 Jackson 06 Aug 1998 Brodeur, Kristin R.
1057
UNA
Hibiscus militaris Cav.
AUA_ACC_46347 Pike 7 Aug 1987 Diamond, Alvin R.
3467
AUA
Hibiscus Laevis All.
UNA00010823 Madison 23 Jul 1980 Meigs, Russell A.
1060
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
JSU132018 Marshall 12 Jul 1992 Spaulding, Daniel D.
2308
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
AUA_ACC_49510 Barbour 24 Jul 1988 Diamond, Alvin R.
5295
AUA
Hibiscus Laevis All.
USAM000008461 Baldwin 26 Jun 1981 LeLong, Michel G.
12105
USAM
Hibiscus militaris Cavanilles
TROY000047778 Autauga 21 Sep 2017 Parker, Matthew R.
1285
TROY
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UWAL0009528 Marengo 24 Jul 2011 England, J. Kevin
3081
UWAL
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNAF0001690 Franklin 20 Jul 1990 Hyde, Paula
07991
UNAF
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
TROY000006987 Clarke 07 Sep 2003 Keener, Brian R.
2969
TROY
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNA00010808 Jackson 02 Aug 1978 Haynes, Robert R.
6832
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
UWAL0006715 Greene 08 Jul 2009 Keener, Brian R.
5497
UWAL
Hibiscus laevis All.
TROY000039017 Butler 02 Sep 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24504
TROY
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNA00010838 Clarke 10 Jul 1979 Haynes, Robert R.
7427
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
USAM000008467 Morgan 27 Aug 1969 Kral, Robert
36457
USAM
Hibiscus militaris Cavanilles
JSU132012 Jackson 6 Aug 1998 Brodeur, Kristin R.
1057
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
AUA_ACC_62196 Barbour 10 Jul 2002 Gil, Glenda
(2001-288)
AUA
Hibiscus Laevis All.
UNA00064882 Clarke 07 Sep 2003 Keener, Brian R.
2969
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
JSU132004 Calhoun 5 Aug 1982 Whetstone, R. David
11860
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
JSU132024 Washington 13 Sep 1997 Whetstone, R. David
18665
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
TROY000039692 Geneva 03 Jul 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
25271
TROY
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
JSU132010 Etowah 12 Aug 1995 Hodge-Spaulding, Lesley M.
4312
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNAF0001701 Winston 17 Sep 1989 Hatton, Jonathan
07264
UNAF
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNAF0001693 Lauderdale 10 Jul 1990 Roberts, Lori
s.n.
UNAF
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
JSU132023 Washington 16 Aug 1993 Ballard, J. Mark
3221
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNA00010833 Washington 06 Aug 1980 Haynes, Robert R.
8166
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
JSU132020 Monroe 12 Sep 1997 Whetstone, R. David
18540
JSU
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
UNA00010804 Elmore 17 Aug 1978 Davenport, Lawrence J.
751
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
UNAF0001686 Colbert 17 Jul 1991 Craigge, Jason
010534
UNAF
Hibiscus laevis Allioni
AUA_ACC_62621 Marshall 12 Apr 2003 Scott, A.N.
44
AUA
Hibiscus Militaris Cav.
TROY000039838 Geneva 25 Aug 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24481
TROY
Hibiscus laevisĀ Allioni
UNA00034156 Lowndes 13 Jul 1982 Gunn, Scott C.
887
UNA
Hibiscus laevis All.
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