Quercus laurifolia

Family:FAGACEAE
Species:Quercus laurifolia Michaux
Common Name:Laurel Oak
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Tree
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:QULA3
Plant Notes:Laurel Oak is a large native deciduous tree in the Beech family (Fagaceae). It can be found throughout Alabama. Laurel Oak grows in floodplains forests, on river banks, in swamps, and in upland depression wetlands, usually on sites with clay soils. Laurel Oak is a large tree reaching heights of 100-120 feet. The bark is gray and moderately deeply furrowed (more so than that of Upland Laurel Oak or Water Oak). Leaves are alternate, petiolate, obovate to oblong in outline, with entire margins. The apex of the leaf is rounded. The leaves are glabrous with raised veins, darker green above than below. The leaves turn yellow and then brown before falling in the autumn. Male flowers are produced in drooping greenish catkins. Female flowers are solitary and short stalked. The fruit is a nut. Acorns take two years to mature. The cup of the acorn is shaped like a shallow bowl, and covers ¼-1/2 of the acorn. Laurel Oak is a large, stately tree and is used as a shade or street tree. It grows fairly rapidly and is not particular about soils. It is however relatively short lived (75-100 years), and often become hollow with age. Laurel Oak is similar to and often confused with Upland Laurel Oak (Quercus hemisphaerica Bartram ex Willdenow). Upland Laurel Oak usually occurs on sandy and drier upland sites. It has leaves that are pointed at the apex, and that are semi-evergreen, not falling until just before new leaves are produced in the spring. Laurel Oak leaves are widest above the middle, while those of Upland Laure Oak are widest near the middle.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native, FACW (NWI)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyFAGACEAE - Beech family
Genus Quercus
Species Quercus laurifolia Michaux - Laurel Oak

Citation

Citation QUERCUS LAURIFOLIA Michaux, Hist. Chenes Amer. Quercus no. 10, pl. 17. 1801.
Basionym: **
Type: **

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Dryopsila laurina Dryopsila laurina Rafinesque, Alsogr. Amer. 27. 1838.Quercus laurina Rafinesque 1838, non Humboldt & Bonpland 1809. 
Dryopsila maritima Dryopsila maritima Rafinesque, Alsogr. Amer. 27. 1838, nom. alt.Quercus maritima Rafinesque 1838, non (Michaux) Willdenow 1805. 
Dryopsila verrucosa var. obliqua Dryopsila verrucosa Rafinesque, var. obliqua Rafinesque, Alsogr. Amer. 26. 1838.Quercus verrucosa Rafinesque, var. obliqua Rafinesque 1838. 
Quercus aquatica var. hybrida Quercus aquatica Walter, var. hybrida Chapman, Fl. South. U.S. 421. 1860. FLORIDA: "West Florida", Schurlock's Spring, s.d., Chapman s.n. (holotype: NY).
Quercus aquatica var. laurifolia Quercus aquatica Walter, var. laurifolia (Michaux) Alph. de Candolle, in de Candolle, Prodr. 16(2): 68. 1864.Quercus laurifolia Michaux 1801. 
Quercus arenicola Quercus arenicola Ashe, Rhodora 24: 77. 1922.Quercus aquatica Walter, var. hybrida Chapman 1860. 
Quercus hybrida Quercus hybrida (Michaux) Ashe, Proc. Soc. Amer. Forest. 11: 88. 1916, non Brotero 1805, nec Bechstein 1829, nec Houba 1887, nec (Chapman) Small 1903.Quercus laurifolia Michaux, var. hybrida Michaux 1801. 
Quercus hybrida Quercus hybrida (Chapman) Small, Fl. S.E. U.S. 350, 1329. 1903, non Brotero 1805, nec Bechstein 1829, nec Houba 1887.Quercus aquatica Walter, var. hybrida Chapman 1860. 
Quercus ilexoides Quercus ilexoides Rafinesque, Alsogr. Amer. 23. 1838. FLORIDA
Quercus laurifolia var. hybrida Quercus laurifolia Michaux, var. hybrida Michaux, Hist. Chênes Amér. pl. 18. 1801.  
Quercus laurifolia var. obtusa Quercus laurifolia Michaux, var. obtusa Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 4: 428. 1805, nom. illegit.Quercus laurifolia Michaux, var. hybrida Michaux 1801. 
Quercus laurifolia var. rhombica Quercus laurifolia Michaux, var. rhombica (Sargent) Trelease, Mem. Natl. Acad. Sci. 20: 157. 1924.Quercus rhombica Sargent 1918. 
Quercus laurina Quercus laurina Rafinesque, Alsogr. Amer. 27. 1838, non Humboldt & Bonpland 1809. "Florida, Carol. &c."
Quercus maritima Quercus maritima Rafinesque, Alsogr. Amer. 27. 1838, non (Michaux) Willdenow 1805. "Florida &c.",
Quercus nitida Quercus nitida Rafinesque, Alsogr. Amer. 20. 1838. "Carol. and Florida",
Quercus obtusa Quercus obtusa Ashe, Torreya 18: 72. 1918.Quercus laurifolia Michaux, var. obtusa Willdenow 1805, nom. illegit.; Quercus laurifolia Michaux, var. hybrida Michaux 1801. 
Quercus obtusa var. obovatifolia Quercus obtusa (Willdenow) Ashe, var. obovatifolia (Sargent) Ashe, Rhodora 24: 78. 1922.Quercus rhombica Sargent, var. obovatifolia Sargent 1918. 
Quercus phellos var. laurifolia Quercus phellos Linnaeus, var. laurifolia (Michaux) Chapman, Fl. South. U.S. 420. 1860.Quercus laurifolia Michaux 1801. 
Quercus rhombica Quercus rhombica Sargent, Bot. Gaz. 65: 430. 1918. ALABAMA: Dallas Co.: Sardis (now Berlin), 2 Oct 1917, Cocks 4706 (holotype: GH ?)
Quercus rhombica var. obovatifolia Quercus rhombica Sargent, var. obovatifolia Sargent, Bot. Gaz. 65: 431. 1918. TEXAS: Jefferson Co.: Beaumont, 14 Sep 1917, Palmer 1274 (holotype: A?).
Quercus rhombifolia Quercus rhombifolia Riddell, New Orleans Med. Surg. J. 9: 614. 1853. LOUISIANA: Rapides Par.: Near Alexandria, s.d., Hale s.n. (holotype: ?).
Quercus suberoides Quercus suberoides Rafinesque, Med. Repos., ser. 2. 5: 360. 1808.  
Quercus uliginosa var. laurifolia Quercus uliginosa Wangenheim, var. laurifolia (Michaux) Zabel, in Beissner et al., Handb. Landholzben. 66. 1903.Quercus laurifolia Michaux 1801. 
Quercus verrucosa var. obliqua Quercus verrucosa Rafinesque, var. obliqua Rafinesque, Alsogr. Amer. 26. 1838. FLORIDA
Quercus obtusa Quercus obtusa Ashe, Torreya 18: 72. 1918.Quercus laurifolia Michaux, var. obtusa Willdenow 1805, nom. illegit.; Quercus laurifolia Michaux, var. hybrida Michaux 1801. 

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Bibb, Blount, Bullock, Butler, Calhoun, Choctaw, Clarke, Coffee, Colbert, Conecuh, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, Dallas, Escambia, Etowah, Geneva, Greene, Hale, Houston, Lawrence, Lee, Lowndes, Madison, Marengo, Marshall, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Pike, Russell, Shelby, Sumter, Talladega, Tallapoosa, Tuscaloosa

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: ALNHS, AUA, JSU, TROY, UNA, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1966 - 2015

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
TROY000042605 Houston 13 Aug 2015 Diamond, Alvin R.
26726
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
AUA000042963 Baldwin 7 Aug 1925 Wolf, Wolfgang
1872
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
TROY000005940 Bullock 20 Aug 2002 Diamond, Alvin R.
13609
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UWAL0015562 Lawrence 15 Sep 2013 England, J. Kevin
4526
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UWAL0048315 Bullock 07 Jul 2017 Horne, Howard E.
4005
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
AUA_ACC_61212 Choctaw 21 Oct 1994 Crouch, Virginia E.
1242
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
JSU123513 Bibb 1 Apr 1999 Brodeur, Kristin R.
1646
JSU
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
AUA000038240 Morgan 15 Mar 2017 England, J. Kevin
7503
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
USAM000006896 Baldwin 25 May 1974 LeLong, Michel G.
7774
USAM
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
AUA_ACC_2021 Lee 15 May 1952 Walsh, C.S.
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
TROY000035610 Butler 16 Sep 2012 Diamond, Alvin R.
23383
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
AUA_ACC_47379 Baldwin 14 Apr 1973 Ponder, William
118
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
AUA000040209 Houston 22 Jan 2015 Barger, T. Wayne
DTP5
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
UNA00073025 Monroe 01 Mar 2011 Barger, T. Wayne
RH-43
UNA
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
JSU136772 Blount 12 Jul 1998 Keener, Brian R.
1237
JSU
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
AUA_ACC_15158 Lee 3 Apr 1969 Chitwood, John C.
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
TROY000005941 Coffee 15 Nov 1999 Allen, Anthony
5
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
TROY000005944 Montgomery 21 Jul 2006 Diamond, Alvin R.
16728
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UWAL0030636 Covington 14 Nov 1986 Kral, Robert
73698
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
AUA_ACC_22720 Lee 5 Oct 1971 Harper, Douglas
011
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
UNA00001904 Lowndes 03 Oct 1997 Haynes, Robert R.
9613
UNA
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
JSU123514 Calhoun 27 Sep 1992 Spaulding, Daniel D.
2990
JSU
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UNA00032396 Tuscaloosa 06 Dec 1968 Brooks, Carol J.
592
UNA
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
UNA00047700 Dale 08 Apr 1997 MacDonald, John R.
10241
UNA
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
TROY000005942 Coffee 08 Dec 1999 Martin, Brian H.
397
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
AUA_ACC_47206 Bullock 11 Sep 1987 Diamond, Alvin R.
3578
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
UWAL0047940 Russell 06 Mar 2020 England, J. Kevin
10725
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
TROY000014583 Dale 08 May 2005 Kral, Robert
96260
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UWAL0053411 Baldwin 13 Jul 1926 Wolf, W.
2566
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
JSU150425 Blount 10 May 1993 Dasinger, Adam P.
88
JSU
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UNA00054332 Blount 12 Jul 1998 Keener, Brian R.
1237
UNA
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
JSU123512 Baldwin 28 Sep 1985 Lawler, Carol L.
075
JSU
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UWAL0019020 Geneva 26 Aug 1998 Kral, Robert
87789
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
AUA_ACC_44053 Conecuh 31 Aug 1985 Diamond, Alvin R.
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
UWAL0035204 Morgan 15 Apr 2017 England, J. Kevin
7503
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
JSU123518 Lee 7 May 1964 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UWAL0008715 Marengo 01 Oct 2011 England, J. Kevin
3153
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UWAL0043559 Baldwin 11 Jul 2000 Larsen, Harry S.
352
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
TROY000021194 Sumter 30 Oct 2008 England, J. Kevin
1476
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
JSU150424 Bibb 15 Mar 1998 Brodeur, Kristin R.
387
JSU
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UWAL0015801 Pike 24 Sep 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24581
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
TROY000049212 Marengo 10 Aug 2013 England, J. Kevin
3843
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UNA00066232 Montgomery 21 Jul 2006 Diamond, Alvin R.
16728
UNA
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
UWAL0046348 Autauga 05 Oct 2018 Parker, Matthew R.
1820
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
AUA_ACC_61286 Choctaw 4 Mar 1995 Crouch, Virginia E.
1324
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
TROY000039375 Pike 24 Sep 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24581
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UWAL0015159 Geneva 25 Aug 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24471
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
JSU139596 Clarke 28 Dec 1940 Bull, H.
s.n.
JSU
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
AUA_ACC_45352 Dallas 6 Apr 1979 Wilkerson, E.H.
008
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
UWAL0010963 Houston 02 May 2007 Kral, Robert
97986
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
JSU123582 Talladega 22 Apr 1995 Ballard, J. Mark
5447
JSU
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UWAL0015953 Bullock 12 Oct 2012 Dykes, Bailee
1396
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
AUA000042965 Montgomery 24 Aug 1927 Wolf, Wolfgang
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
ALNHS00003284 Lowndes 14 Jul 2015 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#1800
ALNHS
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
JSU123581 Shelby 20 Jul 1993 Whetstone, R. David
s.n.
JSU
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UWAL0002907 Montgomery 11 Nov 2010 Diamond, Alvin R.
21709
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UWAL0014622 Marengo 10 Aug 2013 England, J. Kevin
3843
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
TROY000039721 Marengo 01 Oct 2011 England, J. Kevin
3153
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UNA00032457 Mobile s.d. Mohr, Charles
s.n.
UNA
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
AUA_ACC_58443 Baldwin 26 Jul 1996 Tucker, Jr., James W.
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
ALNHS00000532 Dallas 16 Apr 2010 Barger, T. Wayne
OC-90
ALNHS
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
TROY000045552 Lawrence 15 Sep 2013 England, J. Kevin
4526
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UNA00032462 Tuscaloosa 07 Dec 1968 Brooks, Carol J.
595
UNA
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
JSU123516 Lawrence 26 May 1996 Whetstone, R. David
17985
JSU
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
TROY000005945 Pike 01 May 1997 Holmes, Jeanese
318
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
TROY000005943 Escambia 05 May 1995 Brittain, Cynthia L.
133
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UWAL0035145 Madison 02 Jun 2017 England, J. Kevin
7899
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
TROY000020039 Coffee 08 May 2005 Kral, Robert
96272
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UNA00032437 Mobile 06 Aug 1979 Haynes, Robert R.
7514
UNA
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
UWAL0034310 Butler 12 Jul 1995 Kral, Robert
85197
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
JSU140947 Baldwin 09 Aug 1957 Ford, E.S.
5277
JSU
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UWAL0007698 Sumter 30 Oct 2008 England, J. Kevin
1476
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
TROY000048275 Autauga 05 Oct 2018 Parker, Matthew R.
1820
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UWAL0019806 Houston 13 Aug 2015 Diamond, Alvin R.
26726
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
JSU123517 Lee 7 May 1964 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
AUA000038268 Madison 2 Jun 2017 England, J. Kevin
7899
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
UWAL0007697 Coffee 08 May 2005 Kral, Robert
96272
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
TROY000049783 Geneva 20 Oct 2016 Byrd, Cameron
370
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UNA00032477 Bibb 16 Sep 1985 Horn, Charles N.
913
UNA
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
AUA000042962 Baldwin 6 Jul 1926 Wolf, Wolfgang
2567
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
JSU123520 Marshall 21 Jun 1986 Whetstone, R. David
15284
JSU
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UWAL0012467 Butler 16 Sep 2012 Diamond, Alvin R.
23383
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UWAL0035828 Blount 10 Nov 2012 Anderson, Kelly
89
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
TROY000038452 Geneva 25 Aug 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24471
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
USAM000006897 Baldwin 17 Jul 1970 LeLong, Michel G.
5447
USAM
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
AUA_ACC_58293 Tallapoosa 10 May 1997 Tyler, Patricia J.
TYLER74
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
ALNHS00002486 Talladega 21 Nov 2013 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#1268
ALNHS
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
AUA_ACC_10217 Lee 5 May 1962 Landers, K.E.
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
UNA00069375 Sumter 30 Oct 2008 England, J. Kevin
1476
UNA
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
TROY000020038 Crenshaw 03 Aug 2008 Diamond, Alvin R.
19700
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
AUA_ACC_21459 Lee 16 Apr 1970 Wood, Kerry
043
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
AUA000042266 Colbert 22 Jul 2014 Barger, T. Wayne
FH479
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
UNA00032475 Hale 20 Aug 1966 Williams, Norris H.
431
UNA
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
JSU123519 Marshall 23 Apr 1994 Spaulding, Daniel D.
5456
JSU
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
AUA000042292 Talladega 21 Nov 2013 Barger, T. Wayne
SP1268
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
AUA_ACC_70274 Covington 19 May 2009 Hansen, Curtis J.
3976
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
TROY000038147 Bullock 12 Oct 2012 Dykes, Bailee
1396
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UWAL0031845 Conecuh 18 Sep 1993 Kral, Robert
83320
UWAL
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
AUA_ACC_64754 Mobile 19 Oct 1973 Taylor, John
15448
AUA
Quercus Laurifolia Michx.
UNA00017120 Greene 13 Aug 1969 Thomas, Joab L.
2400
UNA
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
TROY000032742 Montgomery 11 Nov 2010 Diamond, Alvin R.
21709
TROY
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
UNA00032452 Tuscaloosa 07 Dec 1968 Brooks, Carol J.
595
UNA
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
JSU123515 Etowah 30 Oct 1994 Hodge, Lesley M.
4055
JSU
Quercus laurifolia Michaux
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