Quercus laevis

Family:FAGACEAE
Species:Quercus laevis Walter
Common Name:Turkey Oak
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Tree
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:QULA2
Plant Notes:Turkey Oak is a native deciduous tree in the Beech family (Fagaceae). It can be found in the southern two-thirds of Alabama. Turkey Oak occurs in xeric (very dry) longleaf pine woodlands, scrub oak sandhills, on dunes, and on shallow soils of rock outcrops. It is a member of the red oak group. The acorns require two years to mature and are higher in tannins than those of the white oak group. Turkey Oak usually has a single trunk. Trees can grow to 60 feet in height, but are usually in the 20-30 foot range. The bark is dark gray and deeply furrowed. Turkey Oak has large sharply lobed leaves that are turned at a ninety-degree angle to the direct rays of the sun at noon. The leaves are alternate, petiolate, thick in texture, and glabrous except for tuffs of hairs in the axils of the veins on the lower surface. The leaves ovate to elliptic in outline and have three to seven large, bristle-tipped lobes. They somewhat resemble the tract of a bird. The leaves often turn bright red or yellow in the autumn. They turn brown after several frosts and remain on the tree until spring. Turkey Oak produces greenish-yellow catkins of male flowers in the spring. Female flowers are sessile or short stalked in the axils of the leaves. The fruit is an acorn. The acorns are about one inch in length, and have a high crude fat content. They are a valuable food source for animals. The bark of Turkey Oak is relatively thick and protects the tree from ground fires. Turkey Oak grows best in full sun in well drained soils. It is sometimes available from native plant nurseries or can be grown from seed. Seedling develop deep tap roots and are not easily transplanted.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyFAGACEAE - Beech family
Genus Quercus
Species Quercus laevis Walter - Turkey Oak

Citation

Citation QUERCUS LAEVIS Walter, Fl. Carol. 234. 1788.
Basionym: **
Type: SOUTH CAROLINA: Lexington Co.: Bluefield Road, 21 Sep 1987, Hill 18860 (neotype: GH; isoneotypes: MO, NCU, NY, USCH). Neotypified by D. B. Ward, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 2: 482. 2008.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Quercus catesbaei Quercus catesbaei Michaux, Hist. Chênes Amér. Quercus no. 17, pl. 29. 1801.  

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Bibb, Bullock, Butler, Calhoun, Chilton, Choctaw, Clarke, Coffee, Conecuh, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, Elmore, Escambia, Etowah, Geneva, Hale, Henry, Houston, Lee, Macon, Marengo, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery, Perry, Pike, Sumter, Tuscaloosa, Washington

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: ALNHS, AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1950 - 1998

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
USAM000006889 Mobile 09 May 1969 Scott, D.L.
300
USAM
Quercus laevis Walter
UWAL0016472 Elmore 18 May 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
25101
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walter
AUA_ACC_63185 Hale 4 Jun 2003 Haynes, Robert R.
10395
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
TROY000034106 Clarke 28 Aug 2009 Keener, Brian R.
5595
TROY
Quercus laevis Walt.
AUA000030714 Covington 19 May 2009 Hansen, Curtis J.
4006
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
JSU123507 Clarke 24 Jun 1984 Whetstone, R. David
14305
JSU
Quercus laevis Walter
AUA_ACC_35906 Bibb 2 Oct 1979 Beckett, Scott W.
320
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
UNA00056133 Henry 28 Aug 1998 MacDonald, John R.
11863
UNA
Quercus laevis Walt.
JSU146232 Calhoun 10 Oct 1996 Hutchinson, Francine
2453
JSU
Quercus laevis Walter
UNA00070433 Escambia 19 May 2009 Hansen, Curtis J.
3959
UNA
Quercus laevis Walt.
AUA_ACC_45715 Escambia 3 Apr 1971 Kirkland, Reo
010
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
TROY000028102 Covington 23 Jul 2009 Diamond, Alvin R.
20821
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
UWAL0047041 Autauga 03 Nov 2016 Parker, Matthew R.
282
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walter
TROY000005934 Dale 22 May 1993 Austinhirst, Ruth
75
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
ALNHS00000726 Monroe 23 Aug 2011 Barger, T. Wayne
RH-347
ALNHS
Quercus laevis Walt.
TROY000042180 Butler 18 May 2011 Diamond, Alvin R.
22133
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
UWAL0033613 Choctaw 09 Oct 2016 Keener, Brian R.
9822
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walter
AUA_ACC_48256 Monroe 18 Oct 1980 Webb, A.L.
134
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
TROY000039439 Elmore 18 May 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
25101
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
UWAL0018497 Houston 26 Jun 1991 Kral, Robert
79161
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walt.
TROY000005938 Pike 07 May 1998 Prazinko, Brian F.
10
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
UWAL0007691 Autauga 06 Oct 2006 Keener, Brian R.
3128
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walt.
AUA_ACC_52836 Dale 24 May 1992 Diamond, Alvin R.
8281
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
TROY000033141 Montgomery 01 Jul 2011 Diamond, Alvin R.
22300
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
UWAL0015898 Conecuh 24 Oct 2012 Diamond, Alvin R.
23533
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walter
JSU123503 Baldwin 17 Aug 1976 Atkinson, Tim A.
1911
JSU
Quercus laevis Walter
TROY000005937 Pike 01 Mar 1999 Martin, Brian H.
14
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
TROY000020131 Calhoun 13 Jun 1996 Spaulding, Daniel D.
8977
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
TROY000020870 Baldwin 13 Sep 2008 England, J. Kevin
1110
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
UWAL0038029 Calhoun 16 Jul 2017 Spaulding, Daniel D.
14880
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walt.
AUA_ACC_46926 Escambia 22 Oct 1982 Wilburn, John C.
113
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
AUA_ACC_44991 Conecuh 8 Nov 1986 Diamond, Alvin R.
2924
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
UWAL0039565 Autauga 03 Nov 2016 Parker, Matthew R.
282
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walter
JSU123504 Bibb 7 Jun 1999 Brodeur, Kristin R.
1988
JSU
Quercus laevis Walter
TROY000005935 Dale 15 Dec 1999 Pennington, Tiffany
326
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
UNA00032447 Tuscaloosa 10 May 1987 Bowers, Frank D.
13719
UNA
Quercus laevis Walt.
AUA_ACC_46001 Houston 9 Jun 1971 Kral, Robert
43153
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
AUA_ACC_44984 Escambia 27 Jan 1986 Diamond, Alvin R.
2944
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
UNA00032433 Tuscaloosa 10 Oct 1982 Burckhalter, Robert
47
UNA
Quercus laevis Walt.
JSU140946 Escambia 01 Apr 1949 Gaines, Xerpha M.
174
JSU
Quercus laevis Walter
UWAL0008605 Montgomery 01 Jul 2011 Diamond, Alvin R.
22300
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walter
TROY000020132 Etowah 20 Sep 1987 Alford, Erick
142
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
UNA00066902 Autauga 06 Oct 2006 Keener, Brian R.
3128
UNA
Quercus laevis Walt.
JSU123501 Baldwin 28 Sep 1985 Lawler, Carol L.
081
JSU
Quercus laevis Walter
UWAL0011273 Marengo 08 Aug 2012 England, J. Kevin
3895
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walter
AUA_ACC_10164 Lee 5 May 1962 Mcgee, R.J.
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
UWAL0015161 Conecuh 24 Aug 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24469
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walter
TROY000036129 Bullock 28 Sep 2012 Dykes, Bailee
1320
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
AUA_ACC_44249 Bullock 7 Nov 1986 Diamond, Alvin R.
2922
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
TROY000020130 Autauga 06 Oct 2006 Keener, Brian R.
3128
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
JSU123499 Baldwin 15 Oct 1982 Whetstone, R. David
12861
JSU
Quercus laevis Walter
UWAL0002948 Clarke 28 Aug 2009 Keener, Brian R.
5595
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walt.
JSU123502 Baldwin 17 Aug 1976 Atkinson, Tim A.
1907
JSU
Quercus laevis Walter
TROY000005933 Coffee 22 Oct 1999 Martin, Brian H.
338
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
UNA00032498 Baldwin 18 Mar 1950 Stallard, W.A.
12
UNA
Quercus laevis Walt.
USAM000006895 Mobile 26 Mar 1968 Scott, D.L.
113
USAM
Quercus laevis Walter
UWAL0013841 Conecuh 24 Aug 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24469
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walter
UWAL0013895 Bullock 28 Sep 2012 Dykes, Bailee
1320
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walter
AUA_ACC_59466 Pike 1999 Martin, Brian
14
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
UWAL0007695 Crenshaw 26 May 2008 Diamond, Alvin R.
19334
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walt.
TROY000005936 Escambia 05 Jul 2004 Diamond, Alvin R.
14459
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
AUA_ACC_49007 Pike 5 Sep 1988 Diamond, Alvin R.
5478
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
UNA00045847 Tuscaloosa 1 Oct 1997 Ginzbarg, S.
1064
UNA
Quercus laevis Walt.
TROY000020041 Butler 12 May 2008 Diamond, Alvin R.
19239
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
USAM000006890 Baldwin 09 Sep 1967 LeLong, Michel G.
3729
USAM
Quercus laevis Walter
UWAL0007692 Baldwin 25 Oct 1997 Keener, Brian R.
491
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walt.
USAM000006894 Mobile 08 Jun 1967 LeLong, Michel G.
3228
USAM
Quercus laevis Walter
TROY000036030 Conecuh 24 Oct 2012 Diamond, Alvin R.
23533
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
UNA00032448 Autauga 09 Jul 1987 Haynes, Robert R.
9219
UNA
Quercus laevis Walt.
AUA_ACC_44177 Pike 11 Sep 1986 Diamond, Alvin R.
2880
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
TROY000037558 Marengo 08 Aug 2012 England, J. Kevin
3895
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
UNA00066896 Sumter 29 Sep 2006 Keener, Brian R.
3109
UNA
Quercus laevis Walt.
JSU123500 Baldwin 27 Jul 1988 Johnson, Stephen C.
X-49-108
JSU
Quercus laevis Walter
UWAL0034842 Dale 16 Aug 1987 Kral, Robert
74355
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walt.
AUA_ACC_42092 Conecuh 9 Aug 1986 Diamond, Alvin R.
2666
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
UNA00060134 Hale 04 Jun 2003 Haynes, Robert R.
10395
UNA
Quercus laevis Walt.
JSU123510 Lee 9 May 1964 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Quercus laevis Walter
TROY000020040 Crenshaw 26 May 2008 Diamond, Alvin R.
19334
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
UNA00032443 Baldwin 06 Nov 1982 Haynes, Robert R.
8691
UNA
Quercus laevis Walt.
AUA_ACC_10661 Macon 15 May 1963 Smoot, B.C.
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
AUA_ACC_59445 Crenshaw 27 Nov 1998 Diamond, Alvin R.
11555
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
UNA00032442 Hale 07 Oct 1982 Burckhalter, Robert
39
UNA
Quercus laevis Walt.
JSU123506 Choctaw 13 Sep 1997 Higginbotham, Jerri W.
239
JSU
Quercus laevis Walter
UWAL0007693 Baldwin 13 Sep 2008 England, J. Kevin
1110
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walt.
AUA000036679 Covington 12 Sep 2011 Hansen, Curtis J.
5257
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
AUA_ACC_50457 Dale 29 Nov 1991 Diamond, Alvin R.
7859
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
TROY000051372 Choctaw 09 Oct 2016 Keener, Brian R.
9822
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
JSU123505 Bibb 18 May 1984 Whetstone, R. David
13962
JSU
Quercus laevis Walter
UWAL0034278 Washington 10 Aug 1992 Kral, Robert
81309
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walt.
AUA000037802 Covington 15 Aug 2011 Hansen, Curtis J.
5202
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
UNA00032438 Mobile 29 Apr _ Mohr, Charles
s.n.
UNA
Quercus laevis Walt.
JSU138668 Calhoun 13 Jun 1996 Spaulding, Daniel D.
8977
JSU
Quercus laevis Walter
AUA_ACC_72589 Baldwin 30 Oct 2007 Barger, T. Wayne
PERD-139
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
UNA00023531 Choctaw 20 Sep 1994 Haynes, Robert R.
9522
UNA
Quercus laevis Walt.
USAM000006891 Clarke 04 Jun 1970 Kral, Robert
39705
USAM
Quercus laevis Walter
UWAL0043558 Baldwin 20 Jul 2000 Larsen, Harry S.
357
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walter
AUA_ACC_70285 Escambia 19 May 2009 Hansen, Curtis J.
3959
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
UNA00032418 Clarke 04 Jun 1970 Kral, Robert
39705
UNA
Quercus laevis Walt.
JSU123511 Washington 13 Sep 1997 Whetstone, R. David
18733
JSU
Quercus laevis Walter
UWAL0031160 Conecuh 10 Oct 2015 England, J. Kevin
5793
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walter
USAM000006892 Mobile 09 May 1969 Scott, D.L.
300
USAM
Quercus laevis Walter
UWAL0005469 Butler 18 May 2011 Diamond, Alvin R.
22133
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walter
AUA_ACC_5463 Baldwin 27 Jul 1968 Scarsbrook, Ellen
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
AUA_ACC_53045 Perry 17 Oct 1993 Diamond, Alvin R.
8878
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
UWAL0007694 Covington 23 Jul 2009 Diamond, Alvin R.
20821
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walt.
JSU123509 Elmore 27 Apr 1979 Whetstone, R. David
9649
JSU
Quercus laevis Walter
AUA_ACC_63748 Escambia 5 Jul 2004 Diamond, Alvin R.
14459
AUA
Quercus Laevis Walt.
UNA00045749 Geneva 06 Jun 1998 MacDonald, John R.
11362
UNA
Quercus laevis Walt.
JSU123508 Clarke 31 Oct 1997 Whetstone, R. David
19017
JSU
Quercus laevis Walter
UNA00057751 Calhoun 13 Jun 1996 Spaulding, Daniel D.
8977
UNA
Quercus laevis Walt.
UWAL0007696 Sumter 29 Sep 2006 Keener, Brian R.
3109
UWAL
Quercus laevis Walt.
SAMF0002230 Pike 24 Jul 1986 Davenport, Lawrence J.
2502
SAMF
Quercus laevis Walter
TROY000038446 Conecuh 24 Aug 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24469
TROY
Quercus laevis Walter
UNA00032423 Chilton 09 Jul 1987 Haynes, Robert R.
9194
UNA
Quercus laevis Walt.
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