Vernicia fordii

Family:EUPHORBIACEAE
Species:Vernicia fordii (Hemsley) Airy-Shaw
Common Name:Tung Oil Tree; China Wood Oil Tree; Kalo Nut Tree
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:**
Duration:**
Category:**
USDA Symbol:**
Plant Notes:Tung Oil Tree is an introduced deciduous tree in the Spurge family (Euphorbiaceae). It is native to southern China, Myanmar, and Vietnam. In Alabama it is found primarily in the southern half of the state. Tung Oil Tree occurs in abandoned plantations, along fence rows and roadsides, around old home sites, and in disturbed woodlands. It is a small tree reaching 30-60 feet in height. The bark is smooth and green or grayish green in color. All parts of the plant exude a white latex when injured. The leaves are alternate, petiolate, ovate to cordate in outline, entire or shallowly three lobed, and sparsely pubescent on both surfaces with appressed hairs. There are two large conspicuous reddish glands at the base of the leaf blade on the petiole. The leaves turn yellow before falling in the autumn. Showy flowers are produced with the leaves in a terminal branched inflorescence. Individual flowers are either male or female with the male flowers surrounding the central female flowers. Each flower has 2 green or reddish sepals and 5 white or pink petals with darker veins. The fruit is a globose capsule that partially splits into wedge shaped segments, each containing a single large seed. All parts of the plant are toxic if consumed. Tung Oil Tree is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas in oil plantations. The oil is extracted from the seed and can be burned in lamps, used in paint, varnish, caulk, and as a wood finish. David Fairchild of the Department of Agriculture promoted its use in the United States, and commercial plantations were established along the Gulf Coast from Florida to Texas beginning in the 1920’s. A series of hurricanes and late cold snaps along with lower priced imports from over seas led to the collapse of the industry in the United States. Tung Oil Tree is listed as an invasive species in Florida and Alabama.—A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Not Native
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyEUPHORBIACEAE - Spurge family
Genus Vernicia
Species Vernicia fordii (Hemsley) Airy-Shaw - Tung Oil Tree; China Wood Oil Tree; Kalo Nut Tree

Citation

Citation **
Basionym: **
Type: **

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Aleurites fordii    

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Butler, Clarke, Conecuh, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, Geneva, Houston, Lawrence, Lee, Mobile, Pike

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: ALNHS, AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1997 - 1997

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
TROY000042347 Covington 29 Mar 2015 Diamond, Alvin R.
26072
TROY
Vernicia fordii (Hemsley) Airy-Shaw
UWAL0014315 Lawrence 17 Jul 2012 England, J. Kevin
3698
UWAL
Vernicia fordii (Hemsley) Airy-Shaw
UWAL0002977 Clarke 24 Mar 2004 Keener, Brian R.
2981
UWAL
Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
AUA_ACC_52964 Conecuh 2 Apr 1994 Diamond, Alvin R.
9041
AUA
Vernicia Fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
AUA_ACC_41915 Baldwin 21 Oct 1973 Wright, A.
193
AUA
Vernicia Fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
AUA_ACC_3227 Lee 28 Apr 1949 Cunningham, Hugh B.
AUA
Vernicia Fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
TROY000004826 Butler 05 Apr 2003 Diamond, Alvin R.
13834
TROY
Vernicia fordii (Hemsley) Airy-Shaw
AUA000042583 Covington 1 Oct 1996 Pancake, Jr., Dale C.
S.N.
AUA
Vernicia Fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
AUA_ACC_9617 Lee 22 May 1961 Tsai, Chwen-Chu
AUA
Vernicia Fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
AUA_ACC_48733 Pike 5 Apr 1988 Diamond, Alvin R.
4391
AUA
Vernicia Fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
TROY000046236 Dale 25 Mar 2018 Diamond, Alvin R.
28132
TROY
Vernicia fordii (Hemsley) Airy-Shaw
UNA00020834 Mobile 30 Mar 1963 Wood, Ernest C.
28
UNA
Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
TROY000052049 Autauga 01 May 2021 Parker, Matthew R.
11925
TROY
Vernicia fordii (Hemsley) Airy-Shaw
AUA_ACC_15551 Lee 20 Apr 1966 Searcy, James W.
AUA
Vernicia Fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
UNA00025937 Mobile 31 Mar 1994 Mann, Carroll J.
94
UNA
Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
TROY000045530 Lawrence 17 Jul 2012 England, J. Kevin
3698
TROY
Vernicia fordii (Hemsley) Airy-Shaw
UNA00048883 Houston 16 Mar 1997 MacDonald, John R.
10049
UNA
Aleurites fordii Hemsl.
UNA00060572 Conecuh 05 Apr 2003 Diamond, Alvin R.
13834
UNA
Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
SAMF0002514 Clarke 24 Mar 2004 Keener, Brian R.
2981
SAMF
Vernicia fordii (Hemsley) Airy-Shaw
AUA_ACC_65510 Baldwin 1 Apr 2005 Hansen, Curtis J.
1730
AUA
Vernicia Fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
JSU125646 Lee 30 May 1971 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Vernicia fordii (Hemsley) Airy-Shaw
UWAL0018948 Geneva 29 Mar 1986 Kral, Robert
73195
UWAL
Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
UNA00050695 Houston 16 Mar 1997 MacDonald, John R.
10049
UNA
Aleurites fordii Hemsl.
ALNHS00001533 Clarke 21 Mar 2012 Horne, Howard E.
SWS-68
ALNHS
Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
USAM000005912 Mobile 10 May 1970 Williford, Warren
12
USAM
Vernicia fordii (Hemsley) Airy-Shaw
UWAL0039739 Dale 25 Mar 2018 Diamond, Alvin R.
28132
UWAL
Vernicia fordii (Hemsley) Airy-Shaw
JSU125645 Clarke 31 Oct 1997 Whetstone, R. David
18982
JSU
Vernicia fordii (Hemsley) Airy-Shaw
USAM000005910 Mobile 19 May 1969 Hill, Kleo
18
USAM
Vernicia fordii (Hemsley) Airy-Shaw
UNA00026014 Clarke 29 Sep 1995 Widder, Alicia D.
15
UNA
Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
AUA_ACC_64549 Lee 12 Apr 2005 Johnson, C.N.
13
AUA
Vernicia Fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
UWAL0044157 Baldwin 16 Mar 2001 Larsen, Harry S.
735
UWAL
Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.) Airy Shaw
AUA_ACC_62797 Butler 5 Apr 2003 Diamond, Alvin R.
13834
AUA
Vernicia Fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
TROY000004827 Crenshaw 26 Mar 2000 Diamond, Alvin R.
11649
TROY
Vernicia fordii (Hemsley) Airy-Shaw
AUA_ACC_50283 Covington 30 Mar 1990 Diamond, Alvin R.
6776
AUA
Vernicia Fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
ALNHS00004219 Baldwin 15 Jun 2016 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#2629
ALNHS
Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
AUA_ACC_40226 Baldwin 7 Apr 1972 Floyd, Scott A.
28
AUA
Vernicia Fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
AUA000032969 Covington 13 Sep 2010 Hansen, Curtis J.
4871
AUA
Vernicia Fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw
TROY000034105 Clarke 24 Mar 2004 Keener, Brian R.
2981
TROY
Vernicia fordii (Hemsley) Airy-Shaw
UWAL0017735 Covington 29 Mar 2015 Diamond, Alvin R.
26072
UWAL
Vernicia fordii (Hemsley) Airy-Shaw
JSU125647 Lee 17 Apr 1964 Bozarth, Gene A.
s.n.
JSU
Vernicia fordii (Hemsley) Airy-Shaw
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