Elaeagnus pungens

Family:ELAEAGNACEAE
Species:Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
Common Name:Thorny Olive; Thorny Silver Berry; Silverthorn
Habitat:An escape from cultivation in disturbed places including old fields and wood margins.
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Shrub
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:**
Plant Notes:Thorny Olive is an introduced evergreen shrub in the Oleaster family (Elaeagnaceae). It is native to China and Japan, and was first introduced in the United States in 1830. In Alabama it can be found statewide. Thorny Olive is planted as an ornamental and escapes to vacant lots, roadsides, urban woodlands, and natural areas. It is a densely branched woody shrub with long, arching stems. The stems can be up to 20 feet in length and entwine with adjacent vegetation in a vine-like manner. Young stems and branches are covered in brown scales. Older stems are armed with spines up to 3 inches in length. Leaves are alternate, evergreen, petiolate, leathery, oblong to lanceolate in outline, with undulate margins. The petiole is covered in brown scales. The upper side of the leaf is glabrous and dark to yellowish green in color. The lower surface of the leaf is whitish and is covered with tan to brownish scales. Funnelform flowers are produced in clusters in the axils of the leaves during the winter. The flowers have brown scaly peduncles. The flowers are yellowish white in color and have a sweet scent. The fruit is an oblong drupe with a single large seed. The drupe is red or orange in color with silvery scales. Thorny Olive is often planted as a dense barrier to foot or vehicle traffic and to screen unsightly areas. The fruit are consumed by birds which spread the seeds over a large area. Portions of the stem that come into contact with the soil will root. Thorny Olive is listed as a Category 2 invasive species by the Alabama Invasive Plant Council.—A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:Native of Japan.
Status:Not Native
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyELAEAGNACEAE - Oleaster family
Genus Elaeagnus
Species Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg - Thorny Olive; Thorny Silver Berry; Silverthorn

Citation

Citation Elaeagnus pungens Thunb., Syst. Veg. (ed. 14) 164. 1784.
Basionym: **
Type: JAPAN

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Elaeagnus eupungens subsp. eupungens Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg, subsp. eupungens Servettaz, Bull. Herb. Boissier, ser. 2. 8: 387. 1908, nom. inadmiss.Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg 1784. 
Elaeagnus pungens subsp. reflexa Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg, subsp. reflexa (E. Morren & Decaisne) Servettaz, Monogr. Elaeagnac. 82. 1909.Elaeagnus reflexa E. Morren & Decaisne 1836. 
Elaeagnus pungens subsp. simonii Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg, subsp. simonii (Carrière) Servettaz, Monogr. Elaeagnac. 81. 1909.Elaeagnus simonii Carrière 1869. 
Elaeagnus pungens var. aurea Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg, var. aurea Servettaz, Monogr. Elaeagnac. 80. 1909.  
Elaeagnus pungens var. aureovariegata Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg, var. aureovariegata Bean, Trees Shrubs Brit. Isl. 1: 508. 1914.  
Elaeagnus pungens var. frederici Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg, var. frederici Bean, Trees Shrubs Brit. Isl. 1: 508. 1914.  
Elaeagnus pungens var. maculata Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg, var. maculata Veitch, Gard. World 8: 71, 133. 1891.  
Elaeagnus pungens var. reflexa Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg, var. reflexa (E. Morren & Decaisne) Rehder, in L. H. Bailey, Cycl. Amer. Hort. 2: 526. 1900.Elaeagnus reflexa E. Morren & Decaisne 1836. 
Elaeagnus pungens var. simonii Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg, var. simonii (Carrière) G. Nicholson, Hand-List Trees, Kew 2: 129. 1896.Elaeagnus simonii Carrière 1869. 
Elaeagnus pungens var. typica Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg, var. typica C. K. Schneider, Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 2: 413. 1909, nom. inadmiss.Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg 1784. 
Elaeagnus pungens var. variegata Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg, var. variegata Rehder, in L. H. Bailey, Cycl. Amer. Hort. 526. 1900.  
Elaeagnus reflexa Elaeagnus reflexa E. Morren & Decaisne, Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Bruxelles 3: 171. 1836.  
Elaeagnus simonii Elaeagnus simonii Carrière, Rev. Hort. 1869: 100. 1869.  

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Bullock, Butler, Calhoun, Chambers, Cherokee, Conecuh, Coosa, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, Dallas, Elmore, Etowah, Henry, Houston, Jackson, Jefferson, Lawrence, Lee, Lowndes, Macon, Madison, Marengo, Marshall, Mobile, Montgomery, Pike, Russell, St. Clair, Talladega, Tuscaloosa

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: ALNHS, AMAL, AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 2014 - 2014

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
JSU121155 Etowah 26 Apr 1994 Hodge, Lesley M.
1253
JSU
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UWAL0010097 Conecuh 22 Dec 2011 Diamond, Alvin R.
22775
UWAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
TROY000033969 Bullock 06 Oct 2011 Dykes, Bailee
202
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
AMAL00016072 Pike 15 Nov 2005 Diamond, Alvin R.
16057
AMAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
TROY000048767 Autauga 21 Sep 2017 Parker, Matthew R.
1275
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
TROY000048432 Macon 29 Aug 2015 Deng, Xulong
7
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UWAL0007417 St. Clair 24 Feb 2008 Keener, Brian R.
4028
UWAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
TROY000038882 Houston 12 Jan 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
24738
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UNA00059362 Chambers 15 Jun 2002 Spaulding, Daniel D.
11397
UNA
Elaeagnus pungens Thunb.
TROY000004264 Conecuh 31 Dec 2004 Diamond, Alvin R.
14930
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UWAL0010062 Bullock 06 Oct 2011 Dykes, Bailee
202
UWAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
TROY000004265 Crenshaw 24 Mar 2001 Diamond, Alvin R.
12299
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UWAL0013731 Coosa 20 May 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24041
UWAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
TROY000004268 Henry 28 Apr 2000 MacDonald, John R.
13817
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
TROY000030916 Lee 03 Dec 1925 Palmer, M.
s.n.
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
JSU121151 Calhoun 13 Feb 1992 Fuller, Alison
35
JSU
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
AUA_ACC_65786 Lee 26 Jan 2005 Martin, Dick
SN
AUA
Elaeagnus Pungens Thunb.
TROY000004263 Butler 21 Jan 2006 Diamond, Alvin R.
16128
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UWAL0039016 Lawrence 17 Mar 2019 England, J. Kevin
9944
UWAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
TROY000004271 Pike 15 Nov 2005 Diamond, Alvin R.
16057
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
AUA_ACC_60598 Jefferson 11 Apr 1999 Smith, Shawn T.
9
AUA
Elaeagnus Pungens Thunb.
JSU121156 Jackson 29 Apr 1998 Brodeur, Kristin R.
586
JSU
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
AUA_ACC_52405 Pike 28 Mar 1994 Diamond, Alvin R.
9034
AUA
Elaeagnus Pungens Thunb.
TROY000037742 Coosa 20 May 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24041
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UNA00064754 Cherokee 30 Mar 2006 Keener, Brian R.
2733
UNA
Elaeagnus pungens Thunb.
UWAL0043036 Baldwin 23 Jan 2008 Larsen, Harry S.
1650
UWAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunb.
TROY000051640 Lowndes 12 Mar 2020 Diamond, Alvin R.
29193
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
AUA_ACC_3546 Lee 12 Mar 1925 Palmer, Martin
AUA
Elaeagnus Pungens Thunb.
AUA_ACC_66086 Butler 21 Jan 2006 Diamond, Alvin R.
16128
AUA
Elaeagnus Pungens Thunb.
UWAL0015200 Henry 13 Jan 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
23654
UWAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
JSU121154 Calhoun 10 Apr 1986 Lawler, Carol L.
117
JSU
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
AUA_ACC_71902 St. Clair 24 Feb 2008 Keener, Brian R.
4028
AUA
Elaeagnus Pungens Thunb.
TROY000032783 Covington 12 Feb 2011 Diamond, Alvin R.
21738
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UWAL0002903 Pike 23 Feb 2011 Diamond, Alvin R.
21751
UWAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UWAL0036632 Mobile 02 Apr 2017 Horne, Howard E.
3764
UWAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
AMAL00016039 Butler 21 Jan 2006 Diamond, Alvin R.
16128
AMAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
JSU121160 Talladega 19 Jul 1992 Ballard, J. Mark
359
JSU
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
TROY000004269 Lee 05 Aug 1978 Kral, Robert
62384
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
TROY000036604 Henry 13 Jan 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
23654
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UWAL0033284 Henry 10 Jan 2016 Diamond, Alvin R.
27137
UWAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
AMAL00016184 Conecuh 31 Dec 2004 Diamond, Alvin R.
14930
AMAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
TROY000018555 Chambers 15 Jun 2002 Spaulding, Daniel D.
11397
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
ALNHS00003455 Lee 11 Nov 2014 Barger, T. Wayne
CSP-116
ALNHS
Elaeagnus pungens Thunb.
AUA_ACC_64580 Conecuh 31 Dec 2004 Diamond, Alvin R.
14930
AUA
Elaeagnus Pungens Thunb.
JSU121157 Lee 4 Oct 1973 Katzer, G.A.
0032
JSU
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
TROY000036495 Montgomery 21 Dec 2012 Diamond, Alvin R.
23602
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UNA00064415 Conecuh 31 Dec 2004 Diamond, Alvin R.
14930
UNA
Elaeagnus pungens Thunb.
TROY000018676 St. Clair 24 Feb 2008 Keener, Brian R.
4028
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
AUA_ACC_59937 Lee 20 Sep 2001 Hansen, Curtis J.
2001-61
AUA
Elaeagnus Pungens Thunb.
TROY000004272 Pike 05 Apr 2001 Diamond, Alvin R.
12333
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UWAL0014580 Marengo 29 Jun 2011 England, J. Kevin
3023
UWAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
JSU121159 Marshall 20 Sep 1986 Whetstone, R. David
15720
JSU
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
AUA_ACC_35755 Covington 23 Nov 1972 Kelley, B.L.
147
AUA
Elaeagnus Pungens Thunb.
TROY000004270 Lee 20 Sep 2001 Hansen, Curtis J.
2001-61
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UWAL0013561 Montgomery 21 Dec 2012 Diamond, Alvin R.
23602
UWAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UNA00057136 Henry 28 Apr 2000 MacDonald, John R.
13817
UNA
Elaeagnus pungens Thunb.
JSU121152 Calhoun 5 Oct 1986 Lawler, Carol L.
1366
JSU
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UWAL0016114 Autauga 01 Jan 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
24710
UWAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
TROY000004266 Dale 18 Jul 1999 Prazinko, Brian F.
s.n.
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
AMAL00006587 Henry 28 Apr 2000 MacDonald, John R.
13817
AMAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
TROY000004273 Pike 18 Apr 1989 Norris, Scott
s.n.
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UWAL0046372 Autauga 21 Sep 2017 Parker, Matthew R.
1275
UWAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
AUA_ACC_6020 Lee 15 May 1958 Bayard, G.Lee
AUA
Elaeagnus Pungens Thunb.
TROY000004267 Dale 06 Jun 2000 Pennington, Tiffany
781
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
AMAL00012830 Cherokee 30 Mar 2006 Keener, Brian R.
2733
AMAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
ALNHS00001059 Dallas 08 Mar 2012 Barger, T. Wayne
OC-655
ALNHS
Elaeagnus pungens Thunb.
TROY000018556 Elmore 02 Jan 2005 Diamond, Alvin R.
14935
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UWAL0007416 Marengo 08 Oct 2008 England, J. Kevin
1371
UWAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
AUA_ACC_35747 Talladega 25 Nov 1972 Pringle, Gary
066
AUA
Elaeagnus Pungens Thunb.
SAMF0002096 Tuscaloosa 17 Oct 1966 Deramus, Rebecca
s.n.
SAMF
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
AUA_ACC_64576 Elmore 2 Jan 2005 Diamond, Alvin R.
14935
AUA
Elaeagnus Pungens Thunb.
AMAL00006588 Jefferson 24 Mar 2002 Spaulding, Daniel D.
11129
AMAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UWAL0053252 Madison 22 Oct 2020 Finzel, Brian
s.n.
UWAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunb.
UWAL0015858 Houston 12 Jan 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
24738
UWAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
JSU121153 Calhoun 10 Apr 1986 Lawler, Carol L.
117
JSU
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
AMAL00007599 Russell 06 Aug 1978 Kral, Robert
62447
AMAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
AMAL00015951 St. Clair 24 Feb 2008 Keener, Brian R.
4028
AMAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UNA00064418 Elmore 02 Jan 2005 Diamond, Alvin R.
14935
UNA
Elaeagnus pungens Thunb.
TROY000039034 Autauga 01 Jan 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
24710
TROY
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UWAL0007415 Dale 03 Dec 2008 Diamond, Alvin R.
20478
UWAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
AMAL00006586 Chambers 15 Jun 2002 Spaulding, Daniel D.
11397
AMAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
AUA_ACC_41349 Conecuh 19 Dec 1985 Diamond, Alvin R.
1976
AUA
Elaeagnus Pungens Thunb.
AMAL00016186 Elmore 02 Jan 2005 Diamond, Alvin R.
14935
AMAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
UNA00068752 St. Clair 24 Feb 2008 Keener, Brian R.
4028
UNA
Elaeagnus pungens Thunb.
UWAL0002812 Covington 12 Feb 2011 Diamond, Alvin R.
21738
UWAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
SAMF0002960 Jefferson 05 Apr 2015 Davenport, Lawrence J.
5718
SAMF
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
AMAL00007565 Lee 05 Aug 1978 Kral, Robert
62384
AMAL
Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg
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