Betula nigra

Family:BETULACEAE
Species:Betula nigra L.
Common Name:River Birch; Red Birch
Habitat:River margins and floodplain forests.
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Tree
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:BENI
Plant Notes:River Birch is a native deciduous tree in the Birch family (Betulaceae). It can be found throughout Alabama. River Birch occurs on the banks of streams and rivers and in floodplain forests. It is a medium sized tree reaching heights of 70-95 feet. The trunks are often several, forming clumps. The bark is thin, reddish to creamy white, papery, and peeling in large sheets. Twigs are glabrous to sparsely pubescent with scattered tiny resinous glands. The leaves are alternate, petiolate, rhombic to ovate in outline, doubly serrate, and pubescent. The leaves have scattered tiny resinous glands on the lower surface. The leaves turn a light-yellow color before falling in the autumn. Flowers are produced in unisexual catkins on the same tree. Male catkins are pendant, and yellowish-green in color. They are produced before or as the leaves emerge. Female catkins are erect, globose, and green in color. The fruit is a winged nutlet. River Birch is commonly available in the nursery trade. It is a popular ornamental for its papery bark. It prefers a site in full sun with moist, acidic, fertile soils, but can grow on drier sites. Several cultivars are available.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native, FACW (NWI)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyBETULACEAE - Birch family
Genus Betula
Species Betula nigra L. - River Birch; Red Birch

Citation

Citation Betula nigra Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 982. 1753.
Basionym: **
Type: Without data (lectotype: LINN 1109.7). Lectotypified by J.L. Reveal, in C.E. Jarvis, Order out of Chaos 349. 2007.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Betula lanulosa Betula lanulosa Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 181. 1803.  

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Barbour, Bibb, Blount, Bullock, Butler, Calhoun, Chambers, Cherokee, Chilton, Choctaw, Clay, Cleburne, Coffee, Colbert, Conecuh, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, Dallas, DeKalb, Escambia, Etowah, Franklin, Geneva, Henry, Jackson, Jefferson, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Lee, Limestone, Lowndes, Macon, Madison, Marengo, Marion, Marshall, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Pike, Randolph, Shelby, St. Clair, Sumter, Talladega, Tallapoosa, Tuscaloosa, Walker, Wilcox, Winston

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: ALNHS, AMAL, AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1949 - 1997

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
UWAL0019651 Blount 13 Aug 1987 Kral, R.
74186
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
JSU107818 Colbert 10 May 1969 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009571 Bibb 10 Jul 1999 Smith, S.T.
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
SAMF0006405 Tuscaloosa 19 Apr 2016 Davenport, Lawrence J.
6130
SAMF
Betula nigra Linnaeus
TROY000045779 Autauga 04 Apr 2017 Parker, Matthew R.
522
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009581 Lee 5 Aug 1959 Pongsuwana, Umpol
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
UWAL0013871 Covington 23 Mar 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
23847
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
JSU107819 DeKalb 15 Apr 1967 Richardson, R.B.
s.n.
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009579 Lee 22 Apr 1969 Hall, William G.
97
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
UWAL0032642 Lawrence 07 Jun 2016 England, J. Kevin
6550
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
JSU107833 Randolph 05 May 1986 Nixon, Christopher F.
2166
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AMAL00018476 Marengo 27 Aug 2008 England, J. Kevin
960
AMAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000025283 Chambers 7 Apr 2007 Willis, M.
10
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
JSU107827 Limestone 14 Jun 1996 Whetstone, R. David
18029
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AMAL00018645 Pike 11 Apr 2007 Diamond, Alvin R.
17382
AMAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UNA00056743 Lauderdale 11 May 1989 Timme, Steven L.
9525
UNA
Betula nigra L.
UWAL0047009 Autauga 21 Mar 2017 Parker, Matthew R.
507
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UNA00069000 Cherokee 26 Sep 2007 Barger, T. Wayne
286
UNA
Betula nigra L.
JSU107813 Cherokee 31 May 1968 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
JSU107822 Lee 04 May 1964 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009574 Choctaw 20 Apr 1996 Crouch, Virginia E.
1538
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
UWAL0035874 Blount 26 Jun 2013 Anderson, Kelly
0335
UWAL
Betula nigra L.
JSU107829 Madison 11 May 1996 Spaulding, Daniel D.
8305
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000029399 Covington 22 Oct 2009 Hansen, Curtis J.
4544
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
JSU107834 Randolph 29 May 1985 Nixon, Christopher F.
1121
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AMAL00005935 Calhoun 27 Apr 1988 Snowden, K.E.
277
AMAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UWAL0016266 Barbour 10 Apr 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
24962
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
JSU107810 Calhoun 09 Apr 1967 Collier, Gary
s.n.
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AMAL00018670 Butler 31 Mar 2007 Diamond, Alvin R.
17347
AMAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009570 Autauga 15 Apr 1982 Gunn, Scott C.
460
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
JSU107828 Macon 21 Apr 1973 Guyse, Keith D.
101
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AMAL00007865 Pike 11 Apr 2003 Diamond, Alvin R.
13841
AMAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UNA00057684 Cherokee 24 Sep 1987 Dickson, Catherine C.
560
UNA
Betula nigra L.
UWAL0019935 Morgan 20 Sep 2015 England, J. Kevin
5757
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009585 Macon 10 Apr 1965 Koelling, Alfred C.
2147
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
JSU107839 Talladega 14 Aug 1994 Ballard, J. Mark
4772
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AMAL00005937 Marion 30 May 2002 Keener, Brian R.
2197
AMAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UWAL0034324 Blount 03 Apr 1995 Kral, R.
84420
UWAL
Betula nigra L.
JSU107817 Colbert 10 May 1969 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009586 Macon 30 Jun 1959 Jones, Jr., Samuel B.
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
UWAL0046883 Autauga 04 Apr 2017 Parker, Matthew R.
522
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
JSU139554 Shelby 11 Oct 1997 Spaulding, Daniel D.
10175
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000032648 Escambia 25 Jun 2010 Hansen, Curtis J.
4813
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
UWAL0039831 Lowndes 08 Apr 2018 Diamond, Alvin R.
28171
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
JSU107816 Coffee 15 Apr 1967 Prater, Pat
s.n.
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009573 Cherokee 16 Apr 1972 Hale, A.R.
65
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
UWAL0007794 Butler 31 Mar 2007 Diamond, A.R.
17347
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
JSU107835 St. Clair 05 May 1983 Nixon, Christopher F.
61
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AMAL00010367 Cherokee 06 Oct 1993 Dobson, Terri L.
213
AMAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009589 St. Clair 5 May 1983 Whetstone, R.David
13065
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
JSU107832 Monroe 12 Sep 1997 Whetstone, R. David
18601
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AMAL00018637 Pike 11 Apr 2007 Diamond, Alvin R.
17382
AMAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UNA00012248 Jefferson 09 May 1981 Horn, Charles N.
239
UNA
Betula nigra L.
UWAL0007795 Geneva 03 Apr 2008 Diamond, A.R.
18828
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009592 Tallapoosa 11 Apr 1965 Koelling, Alfred C.
2172
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
JSU143239 Cleburne 26 Apr 1969 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009578 Henry 8 Apr 1993 Diamond, Alvin R.
8558
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
USAM000002965 Mobile 18 Apr 1979 LeLong, Michel G.
10767
USAM
Betula nigra L.
AMAL00022610 Blount 21 May 2013 Anderson, Kelly
245
AMAL
Betula nigra L.
TROY000037690 Covington 23 Mar 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
23847
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UWAL0032620 Franklin 12 Jun 2016 England, J. Kevin
6572
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
TROY000046416 Lowndes 08 Apr 2018 Diamond, Alvin R.
28171
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UNA00058116 Blount 23 May 1998 Keener, Brian R.
816
UNA
Betula nigra L.
UWAL0007800 Sumter 15 Jun 2000 Holland, Richard
AP00-49
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
JSU107814 Clay 19 Oct 1996 Ballard, J. Mark
7009
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
TROY000003138 Coffee 15 Oct 1999 Martin, Brian H.
320
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000029737 Calhoun 16 Apr 2016 Pruitt, S.
5
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
UWAL0007796 Henry 19 Apr 2005 Kral, R.
96147
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
TROY000016704 Geneva 03 Apr 2008 Diamond, Alvin R.
18828
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009583 Macon 18 Apr 1976 Sessler, Ann H.
29
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
SAMF0006444 Chambers 23 Mar 2016 Davenport, Lawrence J.
6074
SAMF
Betula nigra Linnaeus
TROY000016853 Etowah 23 Aug 1987 Alford, Erick
121
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
ALNHS00000683 Monroe 05 Oct 2011 Barger, T. Wayne
RH-418
ALNHS
Betula nigra L.
UNA00012247 Winston 10 Jul 1949 Segars, Charles B.
44
UNA
Betula nigra L.
TROY000017497 Tallapoosa 15 Jun 2007 Barger, T. Wayne
503
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000042032 Bullock 21 Jun 2016 Barger, T. Wayne
WLE-81
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
SAMF0002343 Jefferson 14 May 1965 Myers, Martha Crystal
s.n.
SAMF
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UNA00058247 Wilcox 24 Mar 2002 Diamond, Alvin R.
12975
UNA
Betula nigra L.
JSU107811 Calhoun 06 May 1986 Lawler, Carol L.
277
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
JSU107837 St. Clair 05 May 1983 Lamb, Vickie L.
44
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AMAL00015749 Henry 19 Apr 2005 Kral, Robert
96147
AMAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UWAL0007863 Sumter 25 Apr 1993 Stanton, Lee
s.n.
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
JSU107808 Calhoun 10 Sep 1995 Hruska, Susan E.
910
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009575 Conecuh 26 Jul 1986 Diamond, Alvin R.
2650
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
UNA00028710 Chilton 27 Apr 1988 Haynes, Robert R.
9346
UNA
Betula nigra L.
UWAL0035081 DeKalb 29 Apr 2017 England, J. Kevin
7673
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
TROY000020563 Henry 19 Apr 2005 Kral, Robert
96147
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
JSU107815 Cleburne 26 Apr 1969 Clonts, Jerry A.
s.n.
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
TROY000003140 Dale 17 May 1995 McCarter, Robby
7
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009580 Lee 6 Aug 1962 Gramlich, Jim
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
USAM000002964 Mobile 30 Mar 1974 LeLong, Michel G.
7483
USAM
Betula nigra L.
AMAL00000508 Montgomery 18 Apr 2006 Deese, J.F.
11
AMAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UNA00066677 Butler 31 Mar 2007 Diamond, Alvin R.
17347
UNA
Betula nigra L.
AMAL00010037 Madison 25 Jun 1993 Ballard, J. Mark
2687
AMAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UWAL0007798 Pike 11 Apr 2007 Diamond, A.R.
17382
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
TROY000016851 Blount 23 May 1998 Keener, Brian R.
816
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UWAL0007862 Sumter 23 May 1984 Green
0024
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
JSU107831 Marshall 13 May 1992 Spaulding, Daniel D.
1651
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009576 Crenshaw 7 Apr 1995 Diamond, Alvin R.
9511
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
UWAL0051905 Madison 04 Oct 2020 England, J. Kevin
11278
UWAL
Betula nigra L.
TROY000016705 Marengo 27 Aug 2008 England, J. Kevin
960
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
JSU107824 Lee 04 May 1964 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009591 Tallapoosa 5 Apr 1974 Claybrook, Charles R.
49
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
UWAL0035873 Blount 21 May 2013 Anderson, Kelly
0236
UWAL
Betula nigra L.
JSU107809 Calhoun 01 Nov 1992 Spaulding, Daniel D.
3061
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009588 Pike 29 Mar 1992 Diamond, Alvin R.
8046
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
UNA00058056 Marion 30 May 2002 Keener, Brian R.
2197
UNA
Betula nigra L.
JSU107823 Lee 08 Aug 1968 Johnson, Stephen C.
s.n.
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AMAL00017114 Shelby 29 Sep 1999 Morrow. D. Keener
841
AMAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
JSU107812 Calhoun 01 Jul 1969 Cofield, Jan
s.n.
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
TROY000003141 Escambia 20 May 1995 Brittain, Cynthia L.
231
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009584 Macon 22 Apr 1969 Gregory, J.M.
27
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
JSU143240 Calhoun 01 Jul 1969 Ellard, Jerry
s.n.
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AMAL00005934 Barbour 06 Apr 2003 Diamond, Alvin R.
13835
AMAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UNA00060622 Barbour 6 Apr 2003 Diamond, Alvin R.
13835
UNA
Betula nigra L.
UWAL0044830 Jackson 13 Jul 2019 England, J. Kevin
10422
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009577 Dale 15 Apr 1992 Diamond, Alvin R.
8099
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
JSU107838 Talladega 09 Sep 1994 Ballard, J. Mark
4919
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
TROY000016852 Cherokee 26 Sep 1987 Dickson, Catherine C.
689
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UWAL0035702 Chambers 23 Mar 2016 Davenport, L.J.
6074
UWAL
Betula nigra L.
AUA000025275 Marion 26 Mar 2007 Howell, B.W.
8
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
JSU107821 Jackson 19 Apr 1999 Brodeur, Kristin R.
1712
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000036890 Morgan 20 Sep 2015 England, J. Kevin
5757
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
TROY000003136 Barbour 06 Apr 2003 Diamond, Alvin R.
13835
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
USAM000002962 Baldwin 03 Aug 1973 LeLong, Michel G.
6724
USAM
Betula nigra L.
TROY000016854 Marion 30 May 2002 Keener, Brian R.
2197
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UWAL0007864 Tuscaloosa 08 Jul 1979 J., A.S.
s.n.
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
JSU107825 Limestone 12 Oct 1998 Hofmann, Tim L.
01828
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009582 Lee 5 Aug 1959 Akedin, Zaynul
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
UNA00060293 Pike 11 Apr 2003 Diamond, Alvin R.
13841
UNA
Betula nigra L.
UWAL0032739 Franklin 27 May 2016 England, J. Kevin
6402
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
TROY000003137 Butler 31 Mar 2007 Diamond, Alvin R.
17347
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UNA00012239 Madison 17 May 1980 Meigs, Russell A.
515
UNA
Betula nigra L.
USAM000002963 Dallas 18 Aug 1978 Wiersema, John H.
499
USAM
Betula nigra L.
TROY000003142 Pike 11 Apr 2007 Diamond, Alvin R.
17382
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009572 Butler 19 Apr 1992 Diamond, Alvin R.
8145
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
TROY000016706 Wilcox 24 Mar 2002 Diamond, Alvin R.
12975
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009593 Walker 22 Apr 1972 Lochamy, J.S.
86
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
USAM000016097 Baldwin 23 May 1970 LeLong, Michel G.
s.n.
USAM
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UNA00012245 Tallapoosa s.d. Mohr, Charles
s.n.
UNA
Betula nigra L.
JSU107836 St. Clair 05 May 1983 Whetstone, R. David
13065
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UNA00069210 Marengo 27 Aug 2008 England, J. Kevin
960
UNA
Betula nigra L.
UWAL0042794 Baldwin 04 Jun 2000 Larsen, H.S.
363
UWAL
Betula nigra L.
JSU107820 Etowah 24 Sep 1995 Hodge-Spaulding, Lesley M.
4382
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
JSU107807 Bibb 01 Apr 1999 Brodeur, Kristin R.
1640
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AMAL00005936 Covington 02 Apr 2000 Kral, Robert
89377
AMAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UWAL0007861 Sumter 14 Aug 1993 Stanton, Lee
s.n.
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
JSU107826 Limestone 21 Apr 1997 Hofmann, Tim L.
00427
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000028201 Conecuh 16 May 2013 Barger, T. Wayne
SP1025
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
UNA00066804 Pike 11 Apr 2007 Diamond, Alvin R.
17382
UNA
Betula nigra L.
UWAL0032673 Marion 28 May 2016 England, J. Kevin
6450
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
TROY000003144 Pike 05 Jun 1993 Dorrill, Jason
5
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
JSU107840 Talladega 21 Jun 1980 Carlisle, N.J.
s.n.
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
TROY000003143 Pike 11 Apr 2003 Diamond, Alvin R.
13841
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009587 Montgomery 21 Apr 1992 Diamond, Alvin R.
8153
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
TROY000003139 Crenshaw 26 Mar 2000 Diamond, Alvin R.
11651
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
AUA000009590 Tallapoosa 14 Jun 1997 Tyler, Patricia J.
TYLER100
AUA
Betula Nigra L.
TROY000047665 Autauga 21 Mar 2017 Parker, Matthew R.
507
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UNA00012246 Tuscaloosa 24 Apr 1963 Williams, Norris H.
86
UNA
Betula nigra L.
UWAL0012719 Marengo 12 Mar 2011 England, J. Kevin
2683
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
TROY000037085 Bullock 21 Feb 2013 Dykes, Bailee
1513
TROY
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UNA00055983 Covington 24 Jun 1998 MacDonald, John R.
11470
UNA
Betula nigra L.
UWAL0007797 Marengo 27 Aug 2008 England, J. Kevin
0960
UWAL
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UNA00032821 Autauga 15 Apr 1982 Gunn, Scott C.
460
UNA
Betula nigra L.
JSU107830 Marshall 13 May 1992 Spaulding, Daniel D.
1628
JSU
Betula nigra Linnaeus
UNA00041671 St. Clair 09 Nov 1997 Keener, Brian R.
499
UNA
Betula nigra L.
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