Ludwigia peruviana

Species:Ludwigia peruviana (Linnaeus) Hara
Common Name:Peruvian Primrose Willow
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Shrub
Plant Notes:Peruvian Primrose Willow is an introduced semi-woody perennial in the Evening-Primrose family (Onagraceae). It is native to South America, but is now a pantropical weed. In Alabama, it occurs in the southern third of the state. Peruvian Primrose Willow grows in wet ditches, along streams and river, and around ponds and lakes. It is a large plant, reaching 12 feet in height. The stem is woody below and herbaceous above. It is usually killed back to ground level in our area. The woody portions of the stem have brown bark that peels in long, thin strips. The herbaceous portions of the stem are green in color and shaggy pubescent. The stem is branched from near the base, and often has spongy roots growing into the water from the lower portions of the stem if it is submerged. The leaves are alternate, short petiolate, lanceolate to elliptic in outline, and entire. Both surfaces of the leaves are pubescent with long hairs. Flowers are produced singly from the axils of the leaves. There are 4 triangular sepals and 4 yellow petals. The petals are lighter in color near their base and easily detached. The ovary is inferior. The fruit is a capsule. Peruvian Primrose Willow is a fast-growing species that can clog waterways and hamper access to the shoreline of ponds and lakes. It is listed as an invasive plant in Florida.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Not Native, OBL (NWI)
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.


FamilyONAGRACEAE - Evening-Primrose family
Genus Ludwigia
Species Ludwigia peruviana (Linnaeus) Hara - Peruvian Primrose Willow


Citation LUDWIGIA PERUVIANA (Linnaeus) H. Hara, J. Jap. Bot. 28: 293. 1953.
Basionym: Jussiaea peruviana Linnaeus 1753.
Type: PERU: Near Lima, without data (lectotype: Feuillee, J. Obs. 2: t. 9. 1714). Lectotypified by P. H. Raven, Reinwardtia 6: 346. 1963.

** Not applicable or data not available.


SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Jussiaea grandiflora Jussiaea grandiflora Ruiz López & Pavón, Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 14: 753. 1955, nom. illegit. et non Michaux 1803.Jussiaea peruviana Linnaeus 1753. 
Jussiaea hirta Jussiaea hirta (Linnaeus) Swartz, Observ. Bot. 142. 1791, non Lamarck 1789.Oenothera hirta Linnaeus 1759. 
Jussiaea macrocarpa Jussiaea macrocarpa Kunth, in Humboldt et al., Nov. Gen. Sp. 6: 102, t. 533. 1823. COLOMBIA: Cundinamarca: Guaduas, Jun-Sep 1801, Humboldt & Bonpland 878 (holotype: P).
Jussiaea peruviana var. australis Jussiaea peruviana Linnaeus, var. australis Hassler, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12: 269. 1913. PARAGUAY: Caaguazu: Caaguazu, s.d., Hassler 9167 (lectotype: G; isotype: B). Lectotypified by Munz, Darwiniana 4: 233. 1942.
Jussiaea peruviana var. glaberrima Jussiaea peruviana Linnaeus, var. glaberrima Donnell Smith, Bot. Gaz. 16: 6. 1891. GUATEMALA: Zacatepequez: Duenas, Apr 1890, Smith 2130 (holotype: US; isotypes: GH, NY).
Jussiaea peruviana var. macrocarpa Jussiaea peruviana Linnaeus, var. macrocarpa (Kunth) Bertoni, Descr. Fis. Econ. Paraguay 12. 1910.Jussiaea macrocarpa Kunth 1823. 
Jussiaea peruviana var. typica Jussiaea peruviana Linnaeus, var. typica Munz, Darwiniana 4: 232. 1942, nom. inadmiss.Jussiaea peruviana Linnaeus 1753. 
Jussiaea speciosa Jussiaea speciosa Ridley, J. Bot. 59: 259. 1921. INDIA: Madras: Tamil, Nadu, Devala, Vellangiri Hills, 1888-1896, Gamble 18361 (lectotype: BM). Lectotypified by P. H. Raven, Reinwardtia 6: 345. 1963.
Jussiaea sprengeri Jussiaea sprengeri L. H. Bailey, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 3: 1730. 1915. ARGENTINA: Cult in California, without data, Johnson s.n. (holotype: POM).
Jussiaea peruviana Jussiaea peruviana Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 388. 1753. PERU: Near Lima, without data (lectotype: Feuillee, J. Obs. 2: t. 9. 1714). Lectotypified by P. H. Raven, Reinwardtia 6: 346. 1963.
Ludwigia hirta Ludwigia hirta (Linnaeus) Gómez de la Maza y Jiménez, Anales Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 23: 66. 1894.Oenothera hirta Linnaeus 1759. 
Ludwigia peruviana var. glaberrima Ludwigia peruviana (Linnaeus) Hara, var. glaberrima (Donnell Smith) Alain, Brittonia 20: 160. 1968.Jussiaea peruviana Linnaeus, var. glaberrima Donnell Smith 1891. 
Oenothera hirta Oenothera hirta Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 998. 1759. HAITI?: Without data (lectotype: Plumier, Pl. Amer. 7: t. 174(2). 1758). Lectotypified by Ramamoorthy & Zardini, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 19: 29-30. 1987.

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Baldwin, Clarke, Coffee, Crenshaw, Houston, Mobile

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: ALNHS, AUA, TROY, UNA, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1893 - 1994

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
UWAL0043349 Baldwin 16 Sep 2000 Larsen, Harry S.
Ludwigia peruviana (L.) H. Hara
UNA00019668 Mobile 04 Jul 1893 Mohr, Charles
Ludwigia peruviana (L.) Hara
TROY000047530 Coffee 09 Nov 2018 Diamond, Alvin R.
Ludwigia peruviana (Linnaeus) Hara
AUA_ACC_64304 Crenshaw 22 Aug 2004 Diamond, Alvin R.
Ludwigia Peruviana (L.) Hara
UWAL0032797 Clarke 11 Oct 2015 Keener, Brian R.
Ludwigia peruviana (Linnaeus) Hara
ALNHS00006860 Clarke 19 Aug 2020 Barger, T. Wayne
Ludwigia peruviana (L.) Hara
UNA00046154 Houston 22 Oct 1994 MacDonald, John R.
Ludwigia peruviana (L.) Hara
TROY000052131 Houston 18 Nov 2020 Diamond, Alvin R.
Ludwigia peruviana (Linnaeus) Hara
UNA00063562 Crenshaw 22 Aug 2004 Diamond, Alvin R.
Ludwigia peruviana (L.) Hara
UWAL0037901 Mobile 03 Sep 1974 LeLong, Michel G.
Ludwigia peruviana (L.) Hara
TROY000007490 Crenshaw 22 Aug 2004 Diamond, Alvin R.
Ludwigia peruviana (Linnaeus) Hara
UWAL0043350 Baldwin 07 Oct 2001 Larsen, Harry S.
Ludwigia peruviana (L.) H. Hara
UWAL0039194 Coffee 09 Nov 2018 Diamond, Alvin R.
Ludwigia peruviana (Linnaeus) Hara
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