Brassica nigra

Species:Brassica nigra (Linnaeus) K. Koch
Common Name:Black Mustard
Habitat:Various disturbed areas.
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
USDA Symbol:**
Plant Notes:Black Mustard is an introduced annual in the Mustard family (Brassicaceae). It is believed to be native to southern Europe and Asia. It has been cultivated for thousands of years for its seed which are used as a spice. In Alabama, it has been found as a sporadic weed on roadsides, in fields, and along railroads. It is an annual with a tap root. Stems are 2-8 feet tall and may be branched above the middle. The stems are pubescent, especially towards the base. Leaves are basal and cauline. The basal leaves are petiolate, obovate in outline, pinnately lobed, and larger than the cauline leaves. The cauline leaves are petiolate or sessile, the base not auriculate or amplexicaul (clasping or wrapping around the stem). The cauline leaves are ovate to elliptic in outline, and less deeply divided than the basal leaves. The leaves are pubescent with stiff hairs, especially on the upper surface. Flowers are produced in racemes. Each flower has four dark yellow petals. The fruit is a silique (a dry dehiscent fruit which is more than 3 times as long as broad. The outer walls of the fruit (valves) split off leaving the seed exposed on a papery septum.) The siliques are erect and more or less appressed to the rachis. Each fruit has 4-12 dark brown or black seed. The seed coat is coarsely reticulate.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Not Native, GNR (Global Rank)
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.


FamilyBRASSICACEAE - Mustard family
Genus Brassica
Species Brassica nigra (Linnaeus) K. Koch - Black Mustard


Citation BRASSICA NIGRA (Linnaeus) W. D. J. Koch, in Roehling, Deutschl. Fl., ed. 3. 4: 713. 1833.
Basionym: Sinapis nigra Linnaeus 1753.
Type: Without data, Herb. Clifford 338, Sinapis 2 (lectotype: BM). Lectotypified by Jonsell & C. E. Jarvis, Nordic J. Bot. 22: 71. 2002.

** Not applicable or data not available.


SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Brassica sinapis Brassica sinapis Noulet, Fl. Bass. Sous-Pyren. 32. 1837, nom. illegit.Sinapis nigra Linnaeus 1753. 
Brassica sinapoides Brassica sinapoides Roth, Man. Bot. 2: 947. 1830.  
Brassica melanosinapis Brassica melanosinapis Endlicher, Cat. Horti Vindob. 2: 259. 1842, nom. illegit.Sinapis nigra Linnaeus 1753. 
Crucifera sinapis Crucifera sinapis E. H. L. Krause, in Sturm, Fl. Deutschl., ed. 2. 6: 131, pl. 38. 1902, nom. illegit.Sinapis nigra Linnaeus 1753. 
Erysimum glabrum Erysimum glabrum C. Presl, Fl. Sicul. 1: 76. 1826, nom. illegit.Sinapis tetraedra J. Presl & C. Presl 1822. 
Melanosinapis nigra Melanosinapis nigra (Linnaeus) Calestani, Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., ser. 2. 15: 384. 1908.Sinapis nigra Linnaeus 1753 
Melanosinapis communis Melanosinapis communis Spenner, Fl. Friburg. 945. 1829, nom. illegit.Sinapis nigra Linnaeus 1753. 
Raphanus sinapis-officinalis Raphanus sinapis-officinalis Crantz, Cl. Crucif. Emend. 109. 1769, nom. illegit.Sinapis nigra Linnaeus 1753. 
Sinapis erysimoides Sinapis erysimoides Roxburgh, Fl. Ind., ed. 1832. 3: 123. 1832.  
Sinapis incana Sinapis incana Thuillier, Fl. Env. Paris, ed. 2. 343. 1799.  
Sinapis nigra Sinapis nigra Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 668. 1753. Without data, Herb. Clifford 338, Sinapis 2 (lectotype: BM). Lectotypified by Jonsell & C. E. Jarvis, Nordic J. Bot. 22: 71. 2002.
Sinapis tetraedra Sinapis tetraedra J. Presl & C. Presl, Delic. Prag. 19. 1822. ITALY: Sicily:
Sinapis torulosa Sinapis torulosa Persoon, Syn. Pl. 2: 207. 1806. FRANCE
Sinapis turgida Sinapis turgida Persoon, Syn. Pl. 2: 207. 1806. FRANCE
Sisymbrium nigrum Sisymbrium nigrum (Linnaeus) Prantl, Exkurs.-Fl. Bayern 222. 1884.Sinapis nigra Linnaeus 1753. 

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Blount, Lee

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AUA, JSU

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
JSU139935 Blount 13 Jul 1996 Spaulding, Daniel D.
Brassica nigra (Linnaeus) K. Koch
AUA_ACC_2388 Lee 1 May 1922 Morris, J.E.
Brassica Nigra (L.) W. D. J. Koch
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