Sonchus oleraceus

Family:ASTERACEAE
Species:Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus
Common Name:Common Sow Thistle
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Annual
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:SOOL
Plant Notes:Common Sow Thistle is an introduced annual or biennial in the Aster family (Asteraceae). It is native to the Mediterranean region, but has been introduced worldwide. In Alabama, Common Sow Thistle can be found throughout the state. Common Sow Thistle occurs in disturbed sites such as along roads and rail roads, in parking lots, along buildings and sidewalks, on vacant lots, and in waste areas. It is an annual or biennial from a tap root. Usually a single stem up to 3 feet in height is produced from each tap root. The stems are hollow and contain a milky sap. Stems are often branched above the middle. The leaves are basal and cauline. The basal leaves are larger than the cauline leaves. Leaves are spathulate to oblong or lanceolate in outline and pinnately lobed with toothed margins. The terminal lobe is the largest. The bases of the leaves are auriculate (clasp the stem). The leaves contain a milky sap. Flowers are produced in heads. The heads produce only ray flowers. Rays are yellow or white in color. The fruit is an achene. The achene is reddish brown in color and has a long “beak” with a crown of white pappus.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Not Native, FACU (NWI)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyASTERACEAE - Aster family
Genus Sonchus
Species Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus - Common Sow Thistle

Citation

Citation SONCHUS OLERACEUS Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 794. 1753.
Basionym: **
Type: Without data (lectotype: LINN 946.9). Lectotypified by Boulos, Bot. Not. 126: 155. 1973.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Hieracium oleraceum Hieracium oleraceum (Linnaeus) Bernhardi, Syst. Verz. 136. 1800.Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus 1753. 
Lactuca oleracea Lactuca oleracea (Linnaeus) M. Gómez de la Maza y Jiménez, Anales Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 19: 268. 1890.Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus 1753. 
Sonchus ciliatus Sonchus ciliatus Lamarck, Fl. France 2: 88. 1779 ("1778"). FRANCE
Sonchus lacerus Sonchus lacerus Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 3: 1513. 1803.    
Sonchus laevis Sonchus laevis (Linnaeus) Villars, Hist. Pl. Dauphine 3: 158. 1788.Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus, var. laevis Linnaeus 1753 
Sonchus oleraceus var. albescens Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus, var. albescens (Neumann) Druce, List Brit. Pl. 74. 1928.Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus, forma albescens Neumann 1901. 
Sonchus oleraceus var. ciliatus Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus, var. ciliatus (Lamarck) Druce, List. Brit. Pl., ed. 2. 74. 1928.Sonchus ciliatus Lamarck 1779. 
Sonchus oleraceus var. integrifolius Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus, var. integrifolius Wallroth, Sched. Crit. 432. 1822.  
Sonchus oleraceus var. lacerus Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus, var. lacerus (Willdenow) Wallroth, Sched. Crit. 432. 1822.Sonchus lacerus Willdenow 1803. 
Sonchus oleraceus var. laevis Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus, var. laevis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 794. 1753. Without data, Herb Burser VI: 16 (lectotype: US). Lectotypified by Boulos, in C. E. Jarvis & Turland, Taxon 47: 368. 1998.
Sonchus oleraceus var. triangularis Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus, var. triangularis Wallroth, Sched. Crit. 432. 1822.  
Sonchus parviflorus Sonchus parviflorus Lejeune ex Reichenbach, Fl. Germ. Excurs. 274. 1831- 1832. BELGIUM
Sonchus reversus Sonchus reversus E. Meyer ex de Candolle, Prodr. 7: 186. 1838.  
Sonchus roseus Sonchus roseus Bessey ex Sprengel, Syst. Veg. 3: 651. 1826.  
Sonchus royleanus Sonchus royleanus de Candolle, Prodr. 7: 184. 1838.  
Sonchus schimperi Sonchus schimperi A. Braun & Bouche, Index Sem. Hort. Berol. 1857(App.): 1. 1857.  
Sonchus schmidianus Sonchus schmidianus K. Koch, Index Sem. Hort. Berol. 1853(App.): 12. 1853.  
Sonchus umbellifer Sonchus umbellifer Thunberg, Prodr. Pl. Cap. 139. 1800. SOUTH AFRICA
Sonchus zacinthoides Sonchus zacinthoides de Candolle, Prodr. 7: 184. 1838.  

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Baldwin, Butler, Calhoun, Coffee, Covington, DeKalb, Etowah, Houston, Jackson, Marengo, Marshall, Mobile, Montgomery, Morgan, Perry, Pike, Winston

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AMAL, AUA, JSU, TROY, UNA, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
UWAL0012735 Marengo 19 Jul 2013 England, J. Kevin
4135
UWAL
Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus
JSU123255 Winston 7 Jun 1975 Whetstone, R. David
4517
JSU
Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus
TROY000032027 Butler 01 Apr 2010 Diamond, Alvin R.
21220
TROY
Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus
AUA000008013 Morgan 3 Jun 1969 Kral, Robert
34878
AUA
Sonchus Oleraceus (L.) Hill
JSU123250 Calhoun 9 Jun 1994 Hruska, Susan E.
239
JSU
Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_53102 Coffee 17 Apr 1989 Diamond, Alvin R.
5825
AUA
Sonchus Oleraceus (L.) Hill
JSU123252 Jackson 26 May 1999 Brodeur, Kristin R.
1833
JSU
Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus
JSU123251 Etowah 18 Oct 1975 Whetstone, R. David
6851
JSU
Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus
UNA00060493 Mobile 25 Dec 2002 Zebryk, Tad M.
8169
UNA
Sonchus oleraceus L.
TROY000052128 Houston 14 Mar 2021 Diamond, Alvin R.
29548
TROY
Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus
UNA00049999 Mobile _ Nov 1888 Mohr, Charles
s.n.
UNA
Sonchus oleraceus L.
UWAL0009388 Perry 30 Oct 2007 Keener, Brian R.
4002
UWAL
Sonchus oleraceus L.
UNA00065493 Jackson 26 May 1999 Brodeur, Kristin R.
1833
UNA
Sonchus oleraceus L.
UWAL0043750 Baldwin 24 Apr 2007 Larsen, H.S.
1593
UWAL
Sonchus oleraceus L.
AUA000008012 Houston 9 Feb 1989 Diamond, Alvin R.
5678
AUA
Sonchus Oleraceus (L.) Hill
UNA00065492 Jackson 26 May 1999 Brodeur, Kristin R.
1833
UNA
Sonchus oleraceus L.
USAM000002811 Mobile 07 Aug 1967 LeLong, Michel G.
3528
USAM
Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus
UWAL0002210 Butler 01 Apr 2010 Diamond, A.R.
21220
UWAL
Sonchus aleraceus L.
JSU123256 Winston 7 Jun 1975 Whetstone, R. David
4517
JSU
Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus
TROY000046484 Covington 25 Dec 2017 Diamond, Alvin R.
28028
TROY
Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus
JSU123253 Jackson 26 May 1999 Brodeur, Kristin R.
1833
JSU
Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus
TROY000016409 DeKalb 13 May 2002 Spaulding, Daniel D.
11289
TROY
Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus
AMAL00003335 DeKalb 13 May 2002 Spaulding, Daniel D.
11289
AMAL
Sonchus oleraceus L.
TROY000002940 Pike 14 May 1997 Evers, Astrid
138
TROY
Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus
TROY000043304 Montgomery 30 Mar 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
24914
TROY
Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus
JSU123254 Marshall 4 Jun 1992 Spaulding, Daniel D.
1918
JSU
Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus
UWAL0010295 Baldwin 21 Feb 2009 Keener, Brian R.
5048
UWAL
Sonchus oleraceus L.
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