Colocasia esculenta

Family:ARACEAE
Species:Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
Common Name:Wild Taro; Coco Yam; Elephant's Ear
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:**
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:**
Plant Notes:Wild Taro is an introduced herbaceous perennial in the Arum family (Araceae). Wild Taro is one of the oldest cultivated plants and its origins are obscure. It is believed to have been native to Malaysia, but was in cultivation in India and other parts of Southeast Asia as early as 5000 BC. Today it occurs in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. In Alabama it occurs in the southern two-thirds of the state. Wild Taro occurs in wet ditches, along the margins of ponds and lakes, on the banks of rivers and creeks, in swamps and marshes, and in hardwood floodplain forests. It is perennial from a large starchy underground corm with elongate horizontal stolons. Leaves are petiolate, peltate in outline, glaucous, glabrous, with entire margins. The petiole is spongy and filled with air spaces. The large leaves can be as tall as 9 feet. The inflorescence is a spathe and spadix. The spathe wraps around the flowers on the spadix. The basal portion of the spathe is green and the upper portion is cheese yellow in color. The spadix has pistillate green flowers near the base and yellow staminate flowers above. There are often some sterile white flowers between the pistillate and staminate flowers. The tip end of the spadix is sterile and yellow in color. The fruit is berry-like with large seed. Wild Taro is cultivated as an ornamental (Elephant Ears) and as a food crop. Both the foliage and corms contain calcium oxalate crystals and raphides that must be removed by cooking and soaking in water before eating. Eating raw portions of the plant can lead to burning and swelling of lips, mouth, tongue, and throat, difficulty of speech, difficulty in swallowing, and possible death. Wild Taro is listed as a Category 2 Invasive Species by the Alabama Invasive Plant Council.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Not Native, FACW (NWI)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyARACEAE - Arum family
Genus Colocasia
Species Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott - Wild Taro; Coco Yam; Elephant's Ear

Citation

Citation COLOCASIA ESCULENTA (Linnaeus) Schott, in Schott & Endlicher, Melet. Bot. 18. 1832.
Basionym: Arum esculentum Linnaeus 1753.
Type: JAMAICA: (lectotype: Sloane, Voy. Jamaica Nat. Hist. 2: t. 106(1). 1725). Lectotypified by Nicolson, in A. C. Smith, Fl. Vit. Nov. 1: 456. 1979.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Alocasia dussii Alocasia dussii Dammer, Gartenflora 1892: 312. 1892.  
Alocasia illustris Alocasia illustris Bull, Cat. 4. 1873.  
Arum colocasia Arum colocasia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 965. 1753. Without data (lectotype: LINN 1079.4). Lectotypified by Mayo, in Bosser et al., Fl. Mascareignes 192: 18. 1984.
Arum colocasioides Arum colocasioides Desfontaines, Tabl. Ecole Bot., ed. 3. 7, 385. 1829.  
Arum esculentum Arum esculentum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 965. 1753.  
Arum lividum Arum lividum Salisbury, Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 260. 1796, nom. illegit.Arum colocasia Linnaeus 1753. 
Arum nymphaeifolium Arum nymphaeifolium (Ventenat) Roxburgh, Fl. Ind., ed. 1832. 3: 495. 1832.Caladium nymphaeifolium Ventenat 1800. 
Arum peltatum Arum peltatum Lamarck, Encycl. 3: 13. 1786, nom. illegit.Arum esculentum Linnaeus 1753. 
Caladium acre Caladium acre R. Brown, Prodr. 336. 1810. AUSTRALIA
Caladium colocasia Caladium colocasia (Linnaeus) W. Wight, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 9: 206. 1905.Arum colocasia Linnaeus 1753. 
Caladium colocasioides Caladium colocasioides (Desfontaines) Brongniart, Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 3: 156. 1834.Arum colocasioides Desfontaines 1829. 
Caladium esculentum Caladium esculentum (Linnaeus) Ventenat, Descr. Pl. Nouv. pl. 30. 1801.Arum esculentum Linnaeus 1753. 
Caladium nymphaeifolium Caladium nymphaeifolium Ventenat, Descr. Pl. Nouv. sub t. 30. 1800; Mag. Encycl. 4: 471. 1801; J. Bot. (Schrader) 4: 320. 1801. INDIA: Kerala: (holotype: Rheede, Hort. Malab. 11: t. 22. 1692).
Colocasia acris Caladium acre R. Brown 1810.  
Colocasia antiquorum var. globulifera Colocasia antiquorum Schott, var. globulifera Engler & K. Krause, in Engler, Pflanzenr. 4(Heft 71): 68. 1920.  
Colocasia antiquorum var. nymphaeifolia Colocasia antiquorum Schott, var. nymphaeifolia (Ventenat) Engler, in Alph. de Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 2: 492. 1879.Caladium nymphaeifolium Ventenat 1800. 
Colocasia antiquorum var. acris Colocasia antiquorum Schott, var. acris (R. Brown) Engler, in Alph. de Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 2: 492. 1879.Caladium acre R. Brown 1810. 
Colocasia antiquorum var. aquatilis Colocasia antiquorum Schott, var. aquatilis (Hasskarl) Hasskarl ex Engler, in Engler & K. Krause, in Engler, Pflanzenr. 4(Heft 71): 68. 1920.Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott, var. aquatilis Hasskarl 1848. 
Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta Colocasia antiquorum Schott, var. esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott ex Engler, in Alph. de Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 2: 492. 1879.Arum esculentum Linnaeus 1753. 
Colocasia antiquorum var. euchlora Colocasia antiquorum Schott, var. euchlora (K. Koch & Linden) Engler, in Alph. de Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 2: 492. 1879.Colocasia euchlora K. Koch & Linden 1854. 
Colocasia antiquorum var. fontanesii Colocasia antiquorum Schott, var. fontanesii Schott ex Engler, in Alph. de Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 2: 492. 1879.Colocasia fontanesii Schott 1854, nom. illegit.; Arum colocasioides Desfontaines 1829. 
Colocasia antiquorum var. illustris Colocasia antiquorum Schott, var. illustris (Bull) Engler, in Alph. de Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 2: 492. 1879.Alocasia illustris Bull 1873. 
Colocasia esculenta var. aquatilis Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott, var. aquatilis Hasskarl, Pl. Jav. Rar. 150. 1848.INDONESIA: Java: 
Colocasia esculenta var. acris Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott, var. acris (R. Brown) A. F. Hill, Bot. Mus. Leafl. 7: 117. 1939.Caladium acre R. Brown 1810. 
Colocasia esculenta var. colocasia Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott, var. colocasia (Linnaeus) Mansfield, Kulturpflanze 2: 550. 1959, nom. illegit.Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott, var. antiquorum (Schott) F. T. Hubbard & Rehder 1932; Colocasia antiquorum Schott 1832; Arum colocasia Linnaeus 1753 
Colocasia esculenta var. euchlora Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott, var. euchlora (K. Koch & Linden) A. F. Hill, Bot. Mus. Leafl. 7: 117. 1939.Colocasia euchlora K. Koch & Linden 1854. 
Colocasia esculenta var. fontanesii Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott, var. fontanesii (Schott ex Engler) A. F. Hill, Bot. Mus. Leafl. 7: 118. 1939.Colocasia antiquorum Schott, var. fontanesii Schott ex Engler 1879; Colocasia fontanesii Schott 1854, nom. illegit.; Arum colocasioides Desfontaines 1829. 
Colocasia esculenta var. globulifera Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott, var. globulifera (Engler & K. Krause) Young, U.S.D.A. Dept. Bull., no. 1247. 1924.Colocasia antiquorum Schott, var. globulifera Engler & K. Krause 1920. 
Colocasia esculenta var. illustris Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott, var. illustris (Bull) A. F. Hill, Bot. Mus. Leafl. 7: 118. 1939.Alocasia illustris Bull 1873. 
Colocasia esculenta var. nymphaeifolia Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott, var. nymphaeifolia (Ventenat) A. F. Hill, Bot. Mus. Leafl. 7: 116. 1939.Caladium nymphaeifolia Ventenat 1800. 
Colocasia esculenta var. typica Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott, var. typica Engl., Vers. Entwicklungsgesch. Extratrop. Florengeb. 1: 8. 1879, nom. inadmiss.Arum Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott 1832; Arum esculentum Linnaeus 1753. 
Colocasia euchlora Colocasia euchlora K. Koch & Linden, App. Sem. Hort. Bot. Berol. 4. 1854.  
Colocasia fontanesii Colocasia fontanesii Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 4: 409. 1854, nom. illegit.Arum colocasioides Desfontaines 1829. 
Colocasia himalensis Colocasia himalensis Royle, Gard. Chron., ser. 3. 2: 379. 1893.  
Colocasia nymphaeifolia Colocasia nymphaeifolia (Ventenat) Kunth, Enum. Pl. 3: 37. 1840.Caladium nymphaeifolium Ventenat 1800. 
Colocasia vulgaris Colocasia vulgaris Rafinesque, Fl. Tellur. 3: 65. 1837 ("1836"), nom. illegit.Colocasia antiquorum Schott 1832; Arum colocasia Linnaeus 1753. 
Colocasia antiquorum Colocasia antiquorum Schott, in Schott & Endlicher, Melet. Bot. 18. 1832.Arum colocasia Linnaeus 1753.Arum colocasia Linnaeus 1753.
Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott, var. antiquorum (Schott) F. T. Hubbard & Rehder, Bot. Mus. Leafl. 1(1): 5. 1932.Colocasia antiquorum Schott 1832; Arum colocasia Linnaeus 1753. 
Colocasia esculenta var. aquatilis Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott, var. aquatilis Hasskarl, Pl. Jav. Rar. 150. 1848. INDONESIA: Java:

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Butler, Calhoun, Clarke, Coffee, Conecuh, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, Elmore, Escambia, Etowah, Geneva, Greene, Houston, Jefferson, Marengo, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery, Pike, Shelby, Talladega, Tuscaloosa, Washington, Wilcox

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AMAL, AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
TROY000009912 Dale 21 Jun 2002 Michael Woods
9634
TROY
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
UWAL0019706 Montgomery 02 Oct 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
25610
UWAL
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
TROY000009911 Covington 17 Jun 2002 Alvin R. Diamond
13355
TROY
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
TROY000038428 Elmore 08 Sep 2013 Alvin R. Diamond
24515
TROY
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
UWAL0031729 Crenshaw 23 Jul 1993 Kral, R.
82948
UWAL
Colocasia esculenta
UWAL0011537 Pike 16 Oct 2012 Diamond, Alvin R.
23518
UWAL
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
57077AUA_ACC Pike 5 NOV 1997 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
11151
AUA
COLOCASIA ESCULENTA (L.) SCHOTT
JSU110272 Etowah 30 Oct 1994 L. M. Hodge
4070
JSU
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
TROY000039018 Butler 02 Sep 2013 Alvin R. Diamond
24502
TROY
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
JSU110275 Monroe 12 Sep 1997 R. D. Whetstone
18552
JSU
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
SAMF0000203 Tuscaloosa 28 Sep 1981 Davenport, L. J.
2203
SAMF
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
TROY000024725 Calhoun 10 Oct 2002 Daniel D. Spaulding
11640
TROY
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
49522AUA_ACC Escambia 23 OCT 1988 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
5619
AUA
COLOCASIA ESCULENTA (L.) SCHOTT
TROY000009910 Coffee 01 Sep 1999 Brian H. Martin
150
TROY
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
JSU110274 Monroe 12 Sep 1997 R. D. Whetstone
18552
JSU
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
TROY000041893 Montgomery 12 Oct 2014 Alvin R. Diamond
25610
TROY
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
UWAL0038207 Mobile 04 Nov 1973 LeLong, Michel G.
7403
UWAL
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
TROY000043741 Houston 22 Oct 2015 Alvin R. Diamond
26982
TROY
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
UNA00026224 Houston 12 Jul 1978 L. J. Davenport
555
UNA
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott
JSU110276 Shelby 23 Sep 2000 D. D. Spaulding
10921b
JSU
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
AMAL00000055 Calhoun 10 Oct 2002 D. D. Spaulding
11640
AMAL
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott
UWAL0015676 Butler 13 Jul 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24373
UWAL
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
UWAL0003489 Greene 24 Aug 2009 Keener, Brian R.
5575
UWAL
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott
TROY000032270 Greene 24 Aug 2009 Brian R. Keener
5575
TROY
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
UNA00026493 Wilcox 24 Sep 1994 Michelle Birk
684
UNA
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott
JSU110273 Jefferson 23 Sep 2000 D. D. Spaulding
10921a
JSU
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
UWAL0038112 Talladega 17 Sep 2017 Spaulding, Daniel D.
15013
UWAL
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott
AMAL00021413 Marengo 10 Aug 2013 J. Kevin England
4447
AMAL
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
UWAL0013383 Marengo 10 Aug 2013 England, J. Kevin
4447
UWAL
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
TROY000009913 Dale 06 Jun 2000 Michael Woods
8109
TROY
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
TROY000044352 Conecuh 29 Oct 2016 Alvin R. Diamond
27709
TROY
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
UNA00059877 Calhoun 10 Oct 2002 D. D. Spaulding
11640
UNA
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott
TROY000035954 Pike 06 Oct 2012 Alvin R. Diamond
23518
TROY
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
UWAL0033125 Houston 22 Oct 2015 Diamond, Alvin R.
26982
UWAL
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
TROY000033849 Montgomery 28 Aug 2011 Alvin R. Diamond
22466
TROY
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
UNA00056013 Geneva 29 Jun 1998 John R. MacDonald
11525
UNA
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott
TROY000009914 Dale 06 Jun 2000 Tiffany Pennington
782
TROY
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
USAM000001499 Wilcox 01 Aug 1978 Robert R. Haynes
s.n.
USAM
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
UNA00024150 Wilcox 22 Oct 1977 Robert R. Haynes
6391
UNA
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott
UWAL0015147 Elmore 08 Sep 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24515
UWAL
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
USAM000001501 Mobile 09 Sep 1970 Michel G. Lelong
5595.1
USAM
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
TROY000044215 Conecuh 03 Aug 2016 Alvin R. Diamond
27583
TROY
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
UWAL0012200 Washington 21 Jun 2013 Keener, Brian R.
7929
UWAL
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
57078AUA_ACC Pike 5 NOV 1997 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
11151
AUA
COLOCASIA ESCULENTA (L.) SCHOTT
JSU140224 Mobile 20 Mar 2012 T. Wayne Barger
SP489
JSU
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
UNA00024146 Wilcox 22 Oct 1977 Robert R. Haynes
6391
UNA
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott
JSU110271 Clarke 13 Sep 1997 R. D. Whetstone
18846
JSU
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
USAM000001500 Mobile 04 Nov 1973 Michel G. Lelong
7403
USAM
Colocasia esculenta (Linnaeus) Schott
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